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63 Cards in this Set

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index
the summing or combining of many separate measures of a construct or variable
scale
a type of quantitative measure often used in survey research that captures the intensity, direction, leval or potency of a varible construct along a continuum. Most are at the ordinal-level of measurement
mutually exclusive attributes
the princible that response categories in a scale or other measure should be organized so that a person's responses fit into only one category, i.e., categories should not overlap
Exhaustive attribiutes
the principle that reponse categories in a scale or other measure should provide a category for all posssible responces , i.e., every possible responcese fits into some category.
unidimensionality
The priciple that when using multiple indicators to measure a construct, all the indicators should consistantly fit together and indicate a single construct.
standarditzation
The procedure to statistically adjust measures to premit making an honest comparison by giving a common basis to measures of different units
Bogardus Social Distance Scale
A scale that measues the distance between two or more social groupsby having members of one group express the point at which they feel comfortable with various types of social inter action or closeness with members of the other groups
Semantic Differential
A scale in which people are presented with a topic or object and a list many polar opposite adjectives or adverbs, then they indicate their feeling by marking one of several spaces between the two adjectives or adverbs.
Guttman Scaling
A scale that researchers use after data are collected to reveal whether a hierarchical pattern exists among responces such responses aat a "higher leval" also tend to give "lower level" ones.
Simple Random Sampling
A type of random sample in which researcher creates a sampleng frame and uses a pure random process to select cases each sampleing population will have an equal probabilty of being selected
Sociogram
A diagram or "map" that shows the network of social relationships, influence patterns or communicationpaths among a group of people or units
Parameter
A characteristic of the entire population that is estimated from a sample.
Snowball Sampling
A type of non-random sample in which the researcher begins to with one case, then based on information about relationships from that case, identifies others and repeats the process
Quota Sampling
A type of non-random sampling in which the researcher first identifies general categories into which casesor people will be slected then he or she selects cases reach a predetermined number of cases in each category
Stratified Sampling
A type of random sample in which the research first identifies a set of mutually-exclusive and exhaustive categories, then uses a random selection method to select cases for each category
Sampling Element
The name for a case or single unot to be selected into a sample.
Population
The name for the large general group of many cases from which a researcher draws a sample and which is usually stated in theoretical terms
Target Population
the name for the large general group of many cases from cases from which a sample is drawn and which is specified in very concrete terms
Sampling Frame
A list a cases in a population or the best approximation of it
Sampling Ratio
the number of in the sample divied by the number of cases in the population or the sampling frameor the proportion of the population in the sample
Sampling Interval
The inverse of the sampling ratio which is used in systematic sampling to select cases
Random Number Dialing
A method of randomly selecting cases for telephone interviews that uses all possible telephone numbers as a sampling frame
Purposive Sampling
a type of non-random sample in which the researcher uses a wide range of methods tolocate all possible cases of a highley specific and difficult to reach population
Hapazard Sampling
A type of non-random sample in which the researcher selects anyone.
Random Number table
A list of numbers which has no pattern in them and which is used to create a random number process for selecting cases and other randomzation purposes
Sampling Error
How much a sample deviates from being representative of the population
Cluster Sampling
A taype of randon sampling that uses multiple stages and is often used to cover wide geographic areas in which aggregated units are randomly selected then samples are drawn from sample aggregated units, or clusters.
Probabilty Proptionate to size
An ajustment made in cluster sampling when each cluster does not have the same number of sampling elements
Sampling Distribution
A distrbution created by drawing many random samples from the same population
Central Limit Theorem
A law like mathmatical relationship which states: Whenever many random number samples are drawn from a population and plotted a normal distrobution is formed, the center of such a distobution for a varible is equal to its population parameter
Confidence Intervals
A range of values usally a little higher and lower than a specific value found in a sample within which a researcher has a specified and high degree of confidence that the population parameter lies
Systematic Sampling
A type of random sample in which a researcher selects every kth (e.g.), 12th) case in the sampling frame using a sampling interval.
Inferential Statistics
A branch a applied mathmatics or statistics based on a random sample. It lets a researcher make precise statements about the level of confidence she has in the results of a sample being equal to the popluation parameter
Statistic
A numerical estimate of a popualtion parameter computed from a sample.
Sample
A small set of cases selected from a larger pool that can be generalized to the population
Deviant Case Sampling
A type of nonrandom sample used by qualitative researchers in which a researcher selects unusual or non-conforming cases purposly to provide insight into social processes
Hidden Populations
People who engage in clandestine, deviant or concealed activities and who are difficult to locate and study.
Nonrandom Sample
A type of sample in which the sampling elements are selected using something other than a mathmatically random process.
Random Sample
A typle of sample in which the researcher uses a random number table or similar mathmatical random process so that each sample element in the population will have an equal probabilty of being selected.
Sequential Sampling
A type of non-random sample in which a reasearcher tries to find as many relitive cases as possible until time, money, or enerygy is exhausted or there is no new info or diversity from the cases.
Prestige Bias
A problem in survey research question writing that occurs when a highly respected group or indvidual is linked to one of the answers
Interview Schedule
The name of asurvey research questionaire when a telephone or face-to-face interview is used
Double-Barreled Question
A survey question that has more than one idea and is stated in a confusing way that makes it unclear whether each idea separatly is being asked or only the combination of both together.
Probe
A follow-up question or action in survey research used by an interviewer to have a respondant clarify or elaborate onan incomplete or inappropriate answer.
Pseudosurvey
When someone uses the survey as a device to pursuede or mislead another person, and has not real interest in gathering legitimate survey information
Closed-Ended Question
A type of survey research qustion in which respondants must choose from a fixed set of answers.
Open-ended Question
A type of survey question in which respondant are free to offer any answer they wish to the question
Partially-Open Question
A type of survey question in which respondant are given a fixed set of answers to choose from but inaddition an "other" category is offered so that they can specify a different answer.
Social Desirability Bias
A bias in survey research in which respondent are given a "normitive" responce or a socially acceptable answer rather than give a truthful answer
Threatening Questions
A type of survey research question in which responents are likley to cover up or lie about their true behavior or beliefs because they fear a loss of self-image or that they may appear to be undesirable or deviant
Floaters
Respodent who lack a belief or opinion, but who give an answer anyway if asked in a survey research question often their answers are inconsistent
Wording Effects
An effect that occurs when a specific term or word used in survey researchquestion affects how respondents answer the question.
Response Set
An effect in survey research when respondents tend to agree with every question in a series rather than thinking through their answer to each question
Order effects
An effect in survey research in which respondents hear questions before others and the earlier questions affect their answers to later questions.
Context Effects
An effect in survey research when an overall tone or set topics heard by a respondent affects how they interpret the meaning of subsquent questions
Funnel Sequence
A way to order survey research questions in a questionaire from general ones to specific
Cover Sheet
One or more pages at the beginning of a questionnaire with informaion about an interview or respondent
Matrix Question
A type of survey research question in which a set of questions are listed in a compact form together and all the questions share the same set of answer categories
Quasi-Filter Question
A type of survey question that includes the answer choice of "no opinion" or "don't know"
Full-Filter Question
A type of survey question in which respondents are first asked whether they have an opinion or know about a topic, then only the respondent with an opinion or knowlegde are asked a specific question on the topic.
Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing CATI
Survey Research in which interviewer sits before a compter screen and keyboard, reads from the screen questions to be asked in a telephone interview, then enters answers directly into the computer
Contigency Question
A type of survey question, based on the answer tothe question a respondent next goes to one or another later question
Standard-Format Question
A type of survey research question in which the answer categories fail to include a choice of "no opinion" or "don't know"