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67 Cards in this Set

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What is “categorical differentiation”?
The exaggeration of differences between groups, and the minimizing of differences within groups.
What is the outgroup homogeneity effect?
View that all members of an outgroup are seen as the same type of person and having little variablity between members while seeing the ingroup as being composed of a very diverse population
Give some explanations for the outgroup homogeneity effect?
cognitive
-familiarity: more interaction with ingroup means more opportunities to see differences within the ingroup. less interaction with outgroup means less oportunity to see variablity within the outgroup

motivational
-need to ensure predicatability of the outgroup
-need to justify discriminatory behaviors
-need to differentiate between groups
-need to acquire and preserve a positive social identity
When do we observe ingroup homogeneity?
-When ingroup is smaller than outgroup
-When there is a need to bolster a threatened social identity
-When the need to assimilate is stronger than the need to be different from others
-During intense conflict (both ingroup and outgroup hmgnty)
What is a stereotype?
An exaggerated belief associated with a category. its function is to justify our conduct in relation to that category (Allport)
Give the three essential features of stereotyping.
-Other individuals are categorized based on easily identifiable characteristics
-A set of traits is attributed to all (or most) of the category. Individuals belonging to the stereotyped group are assumed to be similar to each other and differnt from other groups
-The set of traits is attributed to any individual member of that category
What are the collective functions (purposes) of stereotypes?
Collective functions
-social explanation: creating and maintaining group ideologies that justify and explain intergroup relations, especially treatment of outgroup members
-social differentiation: creating, preserving, or enhancing positively valued distinctiveness for the ingroup
Compare the descriptive and evaluative aspects of stereoptypes.
these are interperetations of reality

evaluative
ingroup: we are careful
outgroup: they are distrustful

descriptive
chinese people and american people agree that chinese people are relatively inhibitted
What is prejudice? (emotion-based)
a social emotion experienced with respect to one's social identity as a group member with an outgroup as a target
How does apraisal theory apply to stereotyping and predjudice?
-Stereotypes result from the relations between groups
-They can change their content as relations change

these cognitive interpretations of reality give rise to different emotional responses(predjudice)
From the stereotype content model: give the stereotypes and emotions that result
Low competence + low warmth = Contempt
Low competence + high warmth = Pity
High competence + low warmth = Envy
High competence + high warmth = Pride (usually ingroup or groups closely related to ingroup)
Give the two sources of predjudice and examples of each.
Cognitive
-categorical differentiation :us v. them
-appraisals of social context :competition, fairness, goal compatability

Social sources
-Socialization
-Social inequality
-Institutional support
What is social identity?
the part of the individual's self concept which derives from knowledge of membership of a social group together with the value and emotional significance attached to that group
What are some strategies for negative group membership?
Dis-identification
Restoring positivity
Give some examples of dis-identification
psychological distance
-self as more important
-cutting off faliure that are reflected by the group

physical distance
-dissociation - leaving the group
Dive some examples of restoring positivity to a negative group membership
-focus on good dimensions fo group
-recategorization
What are some things strong social identity is correlated with?
-personal esteem/general well-being
-percieved group deprivation
-percieved descrimination (esp. non maj. grps)
-more extreme evaluation of ingroup deviants
-both ingroup and outgroup homogeneity
What is dehuminzation?
lessening the humanity of victims as to make it easier for people to persecute them
Give two forms of deindividuation and characteristics of each
Subject focused
-provides perpetrators with anonymity which facilitates acts of atrocity
-diffuses responsibility, and mutually reinforces group memberships in their veiw that they are all behaving appropriately

Object focused
-deprives victims of their individualty, and encourages uniformity of treatment of all out group members
What are the five theories of conflict we went over in class?
-Realistic group conflict theory
-Social identity theory
-Social dominance theory
-Terror management theory
-Relative deprivation theory
What is realistic group conflict theory and how does it bring about conflict?
Classic theory that states that conflict arises from competition for scarece resources
What is social identity theory and how does it bring about conflict?
-Modern theory that says that group membership is included in self image.
-Conlfict arises in order to protect the group and the self
What is social dominance theory and how does it bring about conflict?
-Societies are stratified into hierarchies, based on nationality, ethnicities, religions -> “Tribes”
-Intergroup conflict arises to maintain or subvert social hierarchies
What is terror management theory and how does it bring about conflict?
-People have an existential need for self-preservation, and this need is challenged by the inevitability of death
-Intergroup conflict is partly caused by challenges to our worldviews and their possible extinction.
what is relative deprivation theory and how does it bring about conflict?
modern thoery that states social comparison determines satisfaction with how things are
-conflict arises when one group is doing better than another
What is decategorization?
Removing group lables when interacting whit members of outgroups. Evaluation of outgroup members based solely on individual charactersitics, not those associated with outgroup
What are the limits of decategorization?
If you interact with members of an outgroup and have a postive interation, you won't associate those positive feelings with that outgroup if you dont know what it is.
-suppresion of race or ethnicity may even increase stereotyping.
What is crossed categorization?
Many people belong to more than one social group giving rise to the possibility that two members of different groups may share a common identity in another group
i.e black christian, white christian

-weakens OHE
What are the limits to crossed categorization?
Those individual who are double outgroup members will have even less in common and possibly more soureces of conflict
-some group memberships are moe important than others
What is common ingroup identity?
Resolving intergroup conflict by creating a superordinate ingroup
-instead of us and them use 'we'
What are the limitations to common ingroup identity?
-Threatens to deprive individuals of valued social identities in smaller, less inclusive groups
-By irradicating or replacing oroginal categorizations, not likely to meet needs of assimilation and differentiation.
What is dual identity?
Its an improvement in common ingroup identity. Combines it with crossed categorization.
Basically, you keep your individual groups but you are also apart of superordinate group.
How do commin ingroup identity and dual identity differ?
CII tries to get rid of individual groups in favor of a more common superordinate group. Dual identity lets individuals keep their smaller groups while interacting at the superordinate group level.
What are the limitiations to dual identity?
-Problem for the dual-identity approach is that members of majority and minority groups may have different preferences for what model of intergroup relations to adopt
-Dominant majority ethnic groups tend to favor assimilation, whereas racial and ethnic minorities favor pluralistic integration
What is the aim of the category salience model?
To keep group memberships clear in contact situations and generalize positive interpersonal contact via typical outgroup members.
whatare the limitations to category salience?
Emphasis on group memberships may increase intergroup anxiety -> ie if there isnt enough impact to disconfirm stereotype or if there is negative interaction.
What re the five optimal conditions for Allport Contact hypothesis?
-Equal status
-Stereotypes are disconfirmed
-Cooperation
-Situation allows participants to get to know each other properly
-Norms support equality
What dependant measures can contact change (contact hypothesis)?
-outgroup attitudes
-percieved increased variability of the outgroup
-decategorization
-trust
-forgiveness
How does contact produce change (contact hypothesis)?
-Learning about the outgroup
-changing behavior
-in-group reappraisal
-generating affective ties
-reducing intergroup anxiety
What is attitude? (evaluative)
Attitude is a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor
What effect does attitude have on information processing with regards to
-memory
-attention
-interpretation
-Attitudes guide attentional processes
-Attitudes guide judgment and interpretation
-Attitudes guide memory
The construct of attitudinal strength
-Non-ambivalence of relevant beliefs
-High consistency among attitude components
-The strength of the evaluative response itself
-Extremity
-Accessibility
what are consequences of attitude strength
-resistance against persuasive attack
-persistance over time
-predictive of behavior
What are some self-report measures?
Likert scale
social distance
single item
multi item
what is a likert scale
measures attitudes using a range of statements
when is a singel item self repor measure ok?
using degree of favorability?

ie how do you feel about ___ in genral rate using a degree scale from cold 0 to warm 100
what are some probelms with the singel item scale?
-not reliable
-vague
-do not capture the whole attitude
what re some limitations to self report measures
-social desireablity
- sponteneity - person doesnent really know how they feel or doesnt know anything about the topic so they give a random answer
what are some physiological non self report measures
-galvanic skin response
-electromyography (face)
give some examples of behavioral observation (non-self report)
-seating arrangement in class
-eye contact
-lost letter technique
-bogus pipeline
what is the difference between an implicit and explicit measure
implicit
-evaluations that are automatically activated by the mere presence of the attitude object
-unintentional, unaware

explicit
-those that operate in a concios mode
give some implicit measures
Affective priming
implicit association test (IAT)
what is affective priming
comparing latency periods during responses to differntly valenced words followed by primes
-measures of unintention bias
what is an implicit association test and how does it work?
-form of affective priming
-compare response times
-when two concepts are associated it shoud be easy to give the same response to their exemplars (short time, less mistakes)
-not associated (long time, more mistakes)
What are limitations to the implicit association test
-order of combined tasks influences measure
-practice reduces IAT results
What are the five typical heuristics?
-attractiveness heuristic
-familiarity heuristic
-feelings heuristic
-expertise heuristic
-length of message heuristic
What is superficial processing
Using heuristic cues to evaluate when not really paying attention. Does not impact our thinking
What is systematic processing
Deep processing
What are the two main factors that determine systematic vs heuristic processing
motivation
cognitive capacity
What motivates deep processing?
-When there is a motivation for accuracy
-consequences
-eveidence isnt clear

-when there is self relevance: it matters to individual
What are the effects of cognitive capacity on systtematic processing?
ability to process
-if mental ability is low -> heuristic
-if arguements are complex and numerous -> heuristic

opportunity to process
-interruptions, distractions -> heuristic
what effect do positive moods have on motivation and cognitive capacity
positive mood acts as feelings heuristic -> less motivation for deep processing

good mood activates a network of related material -> hard tto focus
what effect do negative moods have on motivation and cognitive capacity
-less ability to concentrate
-more reasoning errors
what is inoculation?
giving counter arguments ahead of time
what did the subliminal persuasion demonstrate?
placebo effect
what is missattribution?
feeling an emotion and attributing itt o the wrong source
what is reactance?
tendancy for humans to dislike what challenges their freedom