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28 Cards in this Set

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altruism
a motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self-interests
social-exchange theory
the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one' rewards and minimize one's costs
egoism
a motive (supposedly underlying all behavior) to increase one's own welfare
empathy
the vicarious experience of another's feeling; putting oneself in another's shoes
reciprocity norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
social-responsibility norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent on them
kin selection
the idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one's close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes
bystander effect
the finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders
door-in-the-face technique
a strategy for gaining a concession. After someone first turns down a large request (the door-in-the-face), the same requester counteroffers with a more reasonable request
moral exclusion
the perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within which one applies moral values and rules of fairness. Moral inclusion is regarding others as within one's circle of moral concern
overjustification effect
the result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their action as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing
conflict
a perceived incompatibility of actions or goals
non-zero-sum games
games in which outcomes need not sum to zero. With cooperation, both can win; with competition, both can lose. AKA mixed-motive situations
mirror-image perceptions
reciprocal views of one another often held by parties in conflict; for example, each may view itself as moral and peace-loving and the other as evil and aggressive
equal-status contact
contacet on an equal basis. Just as a relationship between people of unequal status breeds attitudes consistent with their relationship, so do relationships between those of equal status. Thus, to reduce prejudice, interracial contact should be between persons equal in status
superordinate goal
a shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort; a goal that overrides people's differences from one another
bagaining
seeking an agreement through direct negotiation between parties to a conflict
mediation
an attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offering suggestions
arbitration
resolution of a conflict by a neutral third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement
integrative agreements
win-win agreements that reconcile both parties' interests to their mutual benefit
GRIT
acronum for "graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction" - a strategy designed to de-escalate international tensions
clinical psychology
the study, assessment and treatment of people with psychological difficulties
depressive realism
the tendency of mildly depressed people to make accurate rather than self-serving judgements, attributions, and predictions.
explanatory style
one's habitual way of explaining life events. A negavtive, pessimistic, depressive one attributes failures to stable, global, and internal causes
behavioral medicine
an interdisciplinary field that integrates and applies behavioral and medical knowledge about health an disease
health psychology
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
misinformation effect
witnessing an event, receiving misleading informatin about it, and then incorporating the "misinformatiion: into one's memory of the event
reactance
the desire to assert one's sense of freedom