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35 Cards in this Set

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Define a Group
Two or more people who interact and influence one another.
Mere presence:
when people are not competing, do not reward or punish and in fact do nothing except be present as a passive audience or as co actors
co actors
a group of people working simultaneously and individually on noncompetitive task.
Social Facilitation
Two meanings: 1: First is that of better performance in simple tasks in the presence of others.
2. The strengthening of already dominant abilities in an individual in the presence of others. (finding by Zajonc)
What does the term "a good house is a full house" imply?
The notion that the more people are there are, reactions are increased even more. For example if sitting in a crowd, the laughter of some will more likely induce your own laughter.
When would crowding hinder performance?
When the task given is not dominant (easy), or when there is hyper arousal and self consciousness.
Evaluation Apprehension
The knowledge that one is being evaluated/observed by others in a crowd during task performance causes increased performance.
Driven by Distraction
the theory states that when the individual is in the presence of others, attention is payed both to self-consciousness and evaluation of others. this split in awareness causes arousal.
Name the three reasons why social facilitation occurs?
Evaluation apprehension, Driven by Distractions, and Mere Presence of others.
Describe Alan Inghams experiment
(Has to do with ropes)
An experiment testing for social loafing, where the an individual told to pull a rope blindfolded put 18% more effort than when told that 2to 5 other people were pulling as well (still blindfolded)
Social Loafing
the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts towards a common goal than when they are individually accountable.
Free Riding
Individuals who benefit from the the group but give little in return.
One cause for social loafing?
the diffusion of responsibility or evaluation apprehension hence the need for perform as well.
When does social loafing not occur in a group setting?
When the task is challenging, appealing or involving.

Also when group is friends or someone other than strangers (generally)
De individuation
loss of self awareness and evaluation apprehension, occurs in group situations that foster anonymity and draw attention away from the individual
How does physical anonymity effect individuals?
It creates De-individuation, less self consciousness, less evaluation apprehensions but also it creates the individual more responsive to the cues present in the situation at hand.
What is the opposite of self awareness?
De-individuation
Diminished self awareness leads to a disconnection of behavior to attitude
Thus the reason for impulsive actions found within groups.
Risky shift phenomenon
When decisions are made within a group, opinions and decisions tend to be more risky.
Group Polarization:
group-produced enhancement of members' pre-existing tendencies, a strengthening of members' average tendency, not a split within the group.
Too much invested to quit phenomenon
where the investment of an opinion thought or action makes the person feel more inclined to invest further. for example businesses that have invested already, feel that more investment may in fact save their businesses.
Accentuation phenomenon
When the initial differences between groups is accentuated over time due to group reinforcement.
Name two reasons for group polarization
Informational influence
Normative influence
What is informational influence
Information influence are those arguments/opinions or discussions which polarize the individual onto one groups side.
What is Normative influence?
The tendency to polarize towards a certain group or side, mostly on the basis to fit into the group, to be seen favorably by the group etc.
What is Leon festinger's theory of social comparison
we find identity in ourselves by comparing our abilities and opinions with others.
Persuasive Arguments are more effective in creating group polarization when what type of argument if presented?
when the argument involves fact laden
How can group polarization occur when there is value laden argument/opinion?
When there is group comparisons, or social comparisons that occur.
Leadership
the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group
task leadership
where the organization of work, setting standards, and focusing on goal attainment is necessary
Social Leadership
work are building teamwork, mediating conflicts, and being supportive.
Transactional leadership
are effective in both task leadership and social leadership.
transformational leaders
where the individual exhibits behaviours that help make a minority view persuasive.
name the characteristics of a transformational leader
Charismatic, Energetic, and self-confident extraverts.
minority slowness effect
where the minority has a tendency to express minority views less quickly than than the majority.