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39 Cards in this Set

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The way in which we interpret, analyze, remember, and use information about the social world
social cognition
theories of social cognition which propose that people employ two broad cognitive strategies to understand and respond to social stimuli, one involving effortless thinking and the other involving effortful thinking
dual-process models of social cognition
deliberate judgements or decisions of which we are consciously aware
explicit cognition
judgments or decisions that are under the control of automatically activated evaluations occuring without our awareness.
implicit cognition
an approach to social cognition that conceives of people as being flexible social thinkers who choose among multiple cognitive strategies based on their current goals, motives, and needs.
motivated-tactician model
the attempt to prevent certain thoughts from entering consciousness
thought suppression
a mental grouping of objects, ideas, or events that share common properties
category
the process of forming categories of people based on their common attributes
social categorization
the most representative member of a category
prototype
an organized structure of knowledge about a stimulus that is built up from experience and that contains causal relations; it is a theory about how the social world operates.
schema
a schema that describes how a series of events is likely to occur ina well-known situation, and which is used as a guide for behavior and problem solving
script
the process by which recent exposure to certain stimuli or events increases the accessibility or certain memories, categories, or schemas
priming
time-saving mental shortcuts that reduce complex judgments to simple rules of thumb
heuristics
the tendency to judge the category membership of things based on how closely they match the "typical" or "average" member of that category
representativeness heuristic
the tendency to judge the frequency or probability of an event in terms of how easy it is to think of examples of that event
availability heuristic
a tendency to be biased toward the stating value or anchor in making quantitative jegments
anchoring and adjustment heuristic
the tendency, once an event has occurred, to overestimate our ability to have foreseen the outcome
hindsight bias
the tendency to evaluate events by imagining alternative versions or outcomes to what actually happened
counterfactual thinking
the tendency to underestimate how common one's own desirable traits and abilities are in the general population
false uniqueness effect
the tendency to seek information that supports our beliefs while ignoring disconfirming information
confirmation bias
the process by which someone's expectations about a person or group leads to the fulfillment of those expectations
self-fulfilling prophecy
a belief system in which the world is percieved to be a fair and equitable place, with people getting what they deserve
just-world belief
the passive resignation produced by repeated exposure to negative events that re perceived to be unavoidable
learned helplessness
an extimate of the probability that something is true
belief
a positive or negative evaluation of an object
attitude
an attitude that is activated automatically from memory, often without the person's awareness that she or he possesses it
implicit attitude
a conciously held attitude
explicit attitude
the simultaneous possession of contradictory implicit and explicit attitudes toward the same object
dual attitudes
enduring beliefs about important life goals that transcend specific situations
values
the tendency to develop more positive feelings toward objects and individuals the more we are exposed to them
mere exposure effect
learning through association, when a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that naturally produces an emotional response
classical conditioning
classical conditioning that occurs int he absence of sonscious awareness of the stimuli involved
subliminal conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reingorcement and weakened if followed by punishment
operant conditioning
the theory that we often infer our internal states, such as our attitudes, by observing our behavior
self-perception theory
attitude theories that emphasize that people develop and change their attitudes based on the degree to which they sarisfy different psychological needs. to change an attitude, one must understand the underlying function that the attitude serves
functional approach
the theory that people's conscious decisions to engage in specific actions are determined by their attitudes toward the behavior in question, the relevant subjective norms, and their perceived behavioral control
theory of planned behavior
the tendency to seek soncistency in one's conitions
cognitive consistency
a feeling of discomfort caused by performing an action that is inconsistent with one's attitudes
cognitive dissonance
a theory predicting that people will often cope with specific threats to the integrity of their self-concept by reminding themselves of other unrelated by cherished aspects of their self-concept
self-affirmation theory