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117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social Influence
The effect that the words, actions or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings attitudes or behaviors
Social Psychology
The scientific study of the way in which people's thoughts, feelings and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people
Construal
The way in which people perceive, comprehend and interpret the social world.
Individual Differences
The aspects of peoples personalities that make them different from other people
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which peoples behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors
Behaviorism
A school of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior, one need only consider the reinforcing properties of the environment - that is, how positive and negative events in the environment are associated with specific behaviors
Gestalt Psychology
A school of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in peoples minds, rather than the objective, physical attributes of the object.
Self-Esteem
People's evaluations of their own self-worth, that is - the extent to which they view themselves and competent, good, and decent.
Social Cognition
How people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember and use social information to make judgements and decisions.
Hindsight Bias
The tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after knowing what occurred
Obervational Bias
The technique whereby a researcher pbserves people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior.
Ethnography
The method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside, without imposing on any preconceived notions they may have.
Participant Observation
A form of the observational method, in which the observer interacts with the people being observed but tries not to alter the situation in any way.
Interjudge Reliability
The level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of data, by showing that two or more judges independently come up with the same observations, researchers can ensure that the observations are not subjective, distorted impressions of one individual.
Archival Analysis
A form of the observational method, in which the researcher examines the accumulated documents, or archives of a culture, magazine, newspapers, diaries and novels.
Correlational Method
The technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measures and the relationship between them (how much one can be predicted from the other) is assumed.
Correlational Coefficient
A statistical technician that assesses how well you can predict one variable from another, for example how well birth weight can be predicted from their height.
Surveys
Research in which a representative sample of people are asked (often anonymously) questions about their attitudes and behaviors
Random Selection
A way of ensuring that a sample of people is representative of a population by giving everone in the population an equal chance of being selected for the sample.
Experimental Method
The method in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable *The variable thought to have a causal effect on peoples responses*
Independent Variable
The variable the researcher changes or varies to see if it has an effect on some other variable
Dependent Variable
The variable a researcher measures to see if it is influenced by the independent variable; the researcher hypothesizes that the dependent variable will depend on the level of the indepent variable
Random Assignment to Condition
A process ensuring that all participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment, through random assignment, researchers can be relatively certain that differences in participants personalities or backgrounds are distributed evenly across conditions
Probability Level (p-value)
A number calculated with statistical techniques that tells researchers how likely it is that the results of their experiment occurred by chance and not because of the independent variable or Variables, the convention in science, including social psychology, is to consider results significant (trustworthy) if the probability level is less than 5 in 100 that the results might be due to chance factors and not the independent variable studied.
Internal Validity
Making sure that nothing besides the independent variable can affect the dependent variable, that is accomplished by controlling all extraneous variables and by randomly assigning people to different experimental conditions.
External Validity
The extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and other people
Mundane Realism
The extent to which an experiment is similar to real life situations
Psychological Realism
The extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life, psychological realism can be high in an experiment even if mundane realism is low.
Cover Story
A description of the purpose of a study, given to participants, that is different from its true purpose, used to maintain psychological realism
Replication
Repeating a study, often with different subject populations or in different settings
Meta-Analysis
A statistical technique that averages the results of two or more studies to see if the effect or an independent variable is reliable.
Cross culture research
Research conducted with members of different cultures, to see whether the psychological processes of interest are present in both cultures or whether they are specified to the culture in which people were raised.
Field Experiment
Experiment conducted in natural settings rather than in the laboratory
Basic Research
Studies that are designed to find the best answer to the question of why people behave as they do and that are conducted purely for reasons of intellectual curiosity
Applied Research
Studies designed to solve a particular social problem
Informed Consent
Agreement to participate in an experiment, granted in full awareness of nature of the experiment, which has been explained in advance
Deception
Misleading participants about the true purpose of a study or the events that will actually transpire.
Debreifing
Explaining to participants, at the end of an experiment, the true purpose of the study and exactly what transpired.
Automatic Thinking
Thinking that is unconscious, unintentional, involuntary and effortless.
Schemas
Mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects and that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember.
Priming
The process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait or concept
Accessability
The extent to which schemas are in the forefront of peoples minds and therefore likely to be used when we are making judgements about the social world
Perseverence Effect
The finding tha tpeoples beliefs about themselves and the social world persist even after the evidence supporting these beliefs is discredited
Self-Fullfilling Prophecy
The case whereby people (1) have an expectation about what another person is like, which (2) influences how they act toward that person, which (3) causes that person to behave consistently with peoples original expectations, making the expectations come true.
Judgemental Heuristics
Mental Shortcuts people use to make judgements quickly and efficiently
Availability Heuristic
The mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgement on the ease with which they can bring something to mind
Representative Heuristic
A mental shortcuts whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case
Base Rate Information
Information about the frequency of members of different catagories in the poplation
Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic
A mental shortcut whereby people use a number or value as a starting point and then adjust insufficiently from this anchor.
Controlled Thinking
Thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary and effortful
Thought Suppression
The attempt to avoid thinking about something we would prefer to forget
Counterfactual Thinking
Mentally challenging some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been
Overconfidence Barrier
The fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgements
Social Perception
The study of how we form impressions of an make inferences about other people.
Nonverbal Communication
The way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words, nonverbal cues include facial expressions, tone of voice, gesture, body position and movement, the use of touch and gaze.
Encode
To express of emit non verbal behavior, such as smiling or patting someone on the back
Decode
To interpret the meaning of the non verbal behavior other people express such as deciding that a pat on the back was an expression of condescension and not kindness.
Affect Blend
A facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers another emotion
Display Rules
Culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
Emblems
Nonverbal gestures that have well understood definitions within a given culture, they usually have direct verbalk translations such as the "ok" sign.
Social Role Theory
The theory that sex differences in social behavior are due to societies division of labor between the sexes, this division leads to differences in gender role expectation and sex-typed skills, both of which are responsible for differences in men's and women's behavior
Implicit Personality Theory
A type of schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together, for example, many people believe that someone who is kind is generous as well.
Attribution Theory
A description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own behavior and other peoples behavior
Internal Attribution
The inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the person, attitude, character or personality
External Attribution
The inference that a person is behaving in a certain way becase of something about the situation he or she is in, the assumption is that most people would respond the same way in that situation.
Covariation Model
A theory that states that to form an attribution about what caused a persons behavior, we systematically note the pattern between the presence or absense of possible causal factors and whether or not the behavior occurs.
Consenus Information
Information about the extent to which other people behave the same way toward ther same stimulus as the actor does
Consistency Information
Information about the extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances
Correspondence Bias
The tendency to infer that peoples behavior corresponds to (matches) their disposition (personality)
Perceptual Salience
The seeming importance of information that is the focus of peoples attention
Two step process of attention
Analyzing another persons behavior first by making an automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situational reasons for the behavior, after which one may adjust the original internal attribution
Spotlight Effect
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which our actions and appearance are salient to others
Actor/Observer Bias
The tendency to see other peoples behavior as dispositionally caused but focusing more on the role of situational factors when explaining ones own behavior
Self-Serving Attributions
Explanations for ones success that credit internal, dispositional factors and explanations for ones failures that blame external situational factors
Defensive Attributions
Explanation for behavior that avoid feelings of vulnerability and mortality
Unrealistic Optimism
A form of defensive attribution wherein people think that good things are more likely to happen to them than to their peers and that bad things are less likely to happen to them than to their peers
Belief in a just world
A form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people
Self Concept
The content of self, that is, our knowledge about who we are
Self- Awareness
The act of thinking about ourselves
Self-Schemas
Mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about themselves and that influence what they notice, think about and remember about themselves
Self-Reference Effect
The tendency for people to remember information better if they relate it to themselves
Independent View of the Self
A way of defining oneself in terms of ones own internal thoughts, feelings and actions, and not in terms of thoughts, feelings and actions of other people
Interdependent View of the Self
A way of defining oneself in terms of ones own relationships to other people, recognizing that ones behavior is often determined by the thoughts feelings and actions of others
Introspection
The process by which people look inward and examine their own thoughts feelings and motives
Self Awareness Theory
The idea that when people focus their attention on themselves they ecaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values
Causal Theories
Theories about the causes of ones own feelings and behaviors, often we learn such theories from our culture "absense makes the heart grow fonder"
Reasons Generated Attitude Change
Attitude change resulting from thinking about the reasons for ones attitudes, people assume their attitudes match the reasons they are plausible and easy to verbalize
Self-Perception Theory
The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs.
Intrinsic Motivation
The desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting not because of external pressures or rewards.
Extrinsic Motivation
The desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressures, not because we enjoy the task or find it entertaining
Overjustification Effort
The tendency of people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons
Task Contingent Rewards
Rewards that are given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done
Performance-Contingent Rewards
Rewards that are based on how well we perform a task
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
The idea that emotional experience is the result of a two step self perception process in which people first experience psychiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it
Misattribution of Arousal
The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is making them feel the way they do
Cognitive Appraisal Theories of Emotion
Theories holding that emotions result from peoples interpretations and explanations of events, even in the absense of psychological arousal
Social Comparison Theory
The idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people
Upward Social Comparison
Comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are on a particular trait or ability
Downward Social Comparison
Comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we on a particular trait or ability
Impression Management
The attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen
Ingratiation
The process whereby people flatter, praise and generally try to make themselves likeable to another person, often of higher status
Self-Handicapping
The strategy whereby people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task, they can avoid blaming themselves
Cognitive Dissonance
A drive or feeling of discomfort originally drfined as being caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions and subsequently defined as being caused by performing an action that is discrepant from ones customary, typically positive self-conception
Post Decision Dissonance
Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluating the rejected alternatives
Lowballing
An unscrupulous strategy whereby a sales person induces a customer to agree to purchase a product at a very low cost, subsequently claims it was an error, and then raises the price, frequently the customer will agree to make the purchase at the inflated price
Justification of Effort
The tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to attain
External Justification
A reason or an explanation for dissonant personal behavior that resides outside the individual (ex. In order to receive a large reward or avoid a severe punishment)
Internal Justification
The reduction of dissonance by changing something about oneself (attitude or behavior)
Counterattitudinal Advocacy
Stating an opinion of attitude that runs counter to ones private beliefs or attitudes
Insufficient Punishment
The dissonance arounsed when individuals lack sufficient external justification for having resisted a desired activity or object, usually resulting in individuals devaluing the forbidden activity or object
Self- Persuasion
A long lasting form of attitude change that results from attempts at self justification
Self-Discrepancy Theory
The idea that people become distressed when their sence of their actual self differs from their ideal self
Self-Evaluation Maintainence Theory
The idea that ones self concept can be threatened by another individuals behavior and that the level of threat is determined by both the closeness of the other individual and the personal relevance of the behavior
Self-Affirmation Theory
The idea that people will reduce the impact of a dissonance-arousing threat to their self concept by focusing on and affirming their competence on some dimension unrelated to the threat
Self-Verification Theory
The idea that people have a need to seek confirmation of their self concept, be it positive or negative, which in some circumstances can conflict with the desire to uphold a favorable view of oneself
Self-Justification
The tendency to justify ones actions in order to maintain ones self esteem
Rationalization Trap
The potential for dissonance reduction to produce a succession of self justifications that ultimately result in a chain of stupid or immoral actions