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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In Milgram's obediance study, what factor decreased compliance?
When evidence of legitimate authority were absent (i.e. experimenter gave instructions on the phone)
Cognitive dissonance occurs when:
We have two conflicting cognitions, we experience a dissonant state, which motuvates us to change our behavior or modify a cognition to reduce the conflict
McGuire's inoculation theory posists:
That by presenting a weak version of an arguement and then refuting it, one can build up a listener's "resistance" to future stronger versions of the arguement
According to the James-Lange theory of emotion:
We cry, and then we feel sad (emotions are based on observations of our own behavior)
The "overjustification theory" (an outgrowth of attribution theory) posits:
When external motivation is offered for a task that a person is intrinsically interested in, the person's interest decreases.
Name the psychologist who conducted research on segregation in public schools that factored in to Brown vs. Board of Ed.
Kenneth Clarck - conducted the famous Doll Study which showed the detrimental effects of segregation.
The effects of social loafing are mitigated when:
The tasks are more challenging or employees receive recognition for their individual work
in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, it was found that people:
compete from the beginning (to try and get the big reward)
Lewin's Field Theory
Conflict Situations:
Appraoch-approach: two positve goals
Avoidance-Avoidance: 2 negative alternatives (can leave the field if possible or vacilliatate until reaches equilibrium)
Approach-voidnce:Drawn & repelled by same goal
Bem's Self-Perception Theory
when internl cues are weak, people infer what they think or feel by observing their behavior
Two factor theory of emotion
Acc. to Schachter, to expereince an emotion, a person must first experience physiological arousal & then make a cogntive interpretation of that arousal (famous epinephrine study)
Overjustification hypothesis
people rewarded for a previouly enjoyable activity will lose interest in the activity (being paid for volunteer charity work)
Social Compariosn Theory
Acc. toFestinger, when an individual is uncertain bout his abilities or opinions - he will evaluate himself by comparing himself to similar others
Fundamental attribution Error
tendency in explaining the causes of others behaviors, to focus on personality characteristics rather than situational determinants
Actor-Observer Effect
tendency in making causal attributions about our own behavior to focus on siutional determinants, while for others to personality characteristics
Weiner's Attributional Theory of Motivation
Attributions are:
False Consensus Bias
tendency to overestimate the degree to which others conform to us in their opinions, attributes, & behavior
Primacy Effect
tendency for information presented first to have the greatest effect on impression formation
Prisoners Dilemma
study on competition/cooperation - found that even though the best strategy is to cooperate, most people compete
Bystander apathy
The greater the number = greate the apathy. Due to:
1) Diffusion of responsibility
2) Social Influence
3) Evaluation Apprehension
Informational Conformity
using anothers behavior as a source of accurate information, in order to avoid making a mistake (EMT)
Normative Conformity
"going along" with the group norm simply due to group pressure
Factors affecting conformity to a group
Group Size: Conformity increases with size, up to 3-4
Unanimity: Even one dissenter detracts
Ambiguity: Increase sconformity
Personality Characteristics: low self-esteem, low intelligence, authritarianism
Minority Influence
Increased by:
2)Not perceived as rigid or biased
3)Doesn't waver
4)Not a member of the social group arguing for
Idosyncrasy credits
gained by neing a competent insider and conforming to the group, allows one to deviate or become a leader
Milgram's Obediance Study
a)65% administered fatal shock
b)only 25% when the experimenter was out of the room
c)48% when experiment was moved out of Yale
Social Power
Refers to the ability to influence others & resist their influence on us:
1)Reward power: holder has power to reward
2)Coercive power: can punish
3)Legitimate power: based on recognition of holders power (police)
4)Referent power:based on the person's desire to be like the holder of power
5)Expert power: belief that the power holder has expertise
Group Polarization
tendency of individuals who start with similar views to end up with a more extreme position after group discussion (called risky shift if risky)
Group Tasks
Additive: group product is sum of all members contributions
Conjunctive: determined by weakest link (mt. climbing)
Disjunctive: strongest link
Compensatory: determined by average member
Persuasive messages that arouse fear in a targetted audience are effective if:
they include instructions on how to avoid the feared consequence
Effects of Crowding
Enhances preveiously felt affect (positive feelings become more positive)
Men tend to be more stressed by crowding (slightly so)
Personal Space
Need increases gradually until age 21
Noise psychology
The damaging ingedients in noise:
Child Witnesses
Children 5-10 are somewhat less accurate witnesses than adults, but do not "misremember touces that did not occur"
Reconstructive memory
Loftus: after we see something, we add additional info to it
Resiiency has been linked to:
2)sense of personal control over events
2)sense of purpose
3)optimism in viewing adverse events as challenges
Buffering hypothesis:
for a person under high levels of stress, high perceived levels of social support can buffer the person against the negative effects
Perceived Barriers
part of the Health Belief Modeal, refers to weighing the preventive disease measure against the perceptions that it is expensive, dangerous, etc.
Research on the approach-avoidance conflict has shown that:
the strength of both increases the closer you get to the goal, but the strength of the negative quality increases more
Research on social faciliation suggests it is related to:
increased arousal
According to self-efficacy theory, the most important variable in behavioral prediction is:
a belief in one's control of the outcome
Based on Schachter's work, one would treat an obese client by:
manipulating the external cues in his eating bhaviors
Most important factor in engendering altruism:
having resposibility for others (such as having younger siblings)
According to Weiner, high achievers tend to attribute their failure to:
Lack of effort (internal, unstable, & controllable)
According to Dollard's catharsis theory:
Aggressive acts - or watching aggression - can reduce a person's inclination to engage in aggression (not really supported by research)
According to self-verification theory, a depressed person will prefer evaluations from others that...
confirm their own negative self-evaluations
People are less likely to be bothered by the effects of crowding when...
the situation is attention-grabbing or arousing
Psychological Reactance
Phenomenon whereby pressure to behave in a certain way causes individuals to behave in the opposite way
Which basis of social power does a consultant rely on?
Referent & expert
Workers listen to their managers due primarily to which forms of power?
Referrent & expert
A therapist is most likely to exert what type of power?