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87 Cards in this Set

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ACTOR OBSERVER EFFECT
in causal attribution, tendency for observer to overestimate the effects of dispositional factors when making attributions about an actor's behavior but to overestimate the effects of situational factors when making self-attributions
ATTITUDE INOCULATION
a method of reducing the effectiveness of a persuasive message that is based on the medical model; involves giving the recipient of the message arguments against own position and weak counterarguments; found to be effective for reducing persuasibility
ATTRIBUTION (DIMENSIONS)
causal attributions are often described in terms of the dimensions-interna/external (dispositional/situational); stable/unstable, and specific/global
AUTOKINETIC EFFECT
Sherif used the autokinetic effect (appearance that a stational point of light is moving) to study conformity to group norms
BASES OF SOCIAL POWER
methods used to induce compliance in another person; French and Raven have identified six bases of social power: coercive, reward, expert, legitimate, referent, and informational
BYSTANDER APATHY
tendency for people to not intervent in emergency situation when others are present; attributed to 3 factors: social comparison, evaluation apprehension, and diffusion of responsibility
CATHARSIS HYPOTHESIS
predicts that an act of aggression reduces an individual's arousal level when then decreases the likelihood that he/she will be agressive again in future; not very supported
CENTRAL TRAITS
characteristics that have a greater impact than others on ipression formation
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COMMUNICATION
affect persuasiveness-e.g., level of discrepancy between position of the recipient and message, order in which 2 sides of argument are presented (primacy/recency effects), and whether message is intentionally delievered or is overheard
CHACTERISTICS OF THE COMMUNICATOR
attitude change has confirmed that credible communicators are more persuasive; trustworthiness
CONGITIVE DISSSONANCE THEORY
Festinger's theory of attitude change that proposes that inconsistencies in cognitions produce discomfort (dissonance), which motivates the individual to reduce the dissonance by changing cognition
CONTACT HYPOTHESIS
proposes that prejudice may be reduced through contact btw memebers of the majority and minority groups as long as the following conditions are met--members of the different groups have equal status and power; provided with opportunities that disconfirm their negative sterotypes about members of the other group
DEINDIVIDUATION MODEL
state of relative anonymity that allows indvd to feel identifiable; associated with increased antisocial behaviors b/c behavior no longer controlled by guilt, fear of evaluation, or other inhibitory controls
EFFECTS OF CROWDING
crowded conditions tend to enhance positive experiences and increase the unpleasantness of negative experiences; males seem to be more stressed by crowded conditions than females; more likely to react with increased aggressiveness; males require more personal space
EFFECTS OF MEDIA VIOLENCE
research fueled by observational (social) learning; media violence does not seem to have a cathartic effect but instead increases viewer aggressiveness
EFFECTS OF PORNOGRAPHY
research assessing exposure to violent pornography has generally found tha tit not only increases aggressive behavior but also promotes a greater acceptance of violence against women
ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL
cognitive theory of attitude change that distinguishes between 2 information processing routes--central and peripheral. reliance on central route requires greater mental effort that produces longer-lasting attitude change
EMOTION-IN-RELATIONSHIP MODEL
proposes that there is an innate mechanism that generates emotion in response to unexpected events that disrupts ongoing sequences of behaviors
EQUITY THEORY
theory of motivation that predicts that motivation is affected by comparison of input/outcome ratios
FIELDS THEORY
Lewin's theory of human behavior that describes it as a product of interdependent factors in the person and physical and social environment
FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION BIAS
attribution error in which an observer tends to overestimate dispositional causes and underestimates situational causes when making attributions about behavior
FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS
theory that aggression is always motivated by frustration; revised version predicts that frustration leads to aggression in the presence of aggressive cues
GAIN-LOSS EFFECT
predicts liking is related to the pattern rather than the amt of rewards-specifically people tend to be most attracted to individuals who show increasing liking for them and to be least attracted to individuals who show decreasing liking for them
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN AFFILIATION
researchshow that females ordinarily spend more time than males engaged in conversation, are more likely to talk to people of the same sex, and may affiliate more than males do in public places
HTEROSEXISM
defined by Herek, 'an ideological system that denies, denigrates, stigmatizes among nonheterosexual forms of behavior, identity, relationships, or community;
SEXUAL PREJUDICE
defined by Herek; negative attitude based on sexual orientation whether the target is homsexual, bisexual, or heterosexual
ILLUSORY CORRELATION
refers to tendency to see a relationship between variables that are not actually related
JIGSAW METHOD
method of learning in which assignments must be completed by teams with each team member being assigned a different piece of the project; improve intergroup relations, cooperation, and self-esteem; improves achievement especially for members of minority groups
LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
learned expectation that one cannot control negative life events, which leads to apathy and depression; associated with internal, stable, and global attribution
MINORITY INFLUENCE
research shows that minority can influence the majority by maintaining a consistent (but not dogmatic) position
MISERY LOVES MISERABLE COMPANY
Schachter's conclusion that people like to affiliate with those in similar circumstances
MOTIVATIONAL CONFLICTS
Lewin distinguished between 3 motivational conflicts: approach/approach, avoidance/avoidance, approach/avoidance--both positive and negative and difficult to resolve
OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY (MILGRAM)
controversial research which evaluated participants willingness to obey high status individual even when doing so seemed to harm another
OVERJUSTIFICATION HYPOTHESIS
notion that, when people are externally rewarded for a task they previously found intrinsically interesting, their intrinsic interest of the task will decrease
PRISON STUDY (ZIMBARDO)
prison simulation study which demonstrated that people alter their behaviors to fit their assigned role
PSEUDOPATIENT STUDY (ROSENHAN)
demonstrated the roles of social context and labeling on impression formation; onced admitted to mental hospital, pseudopatients were viewed as mental patients even though they did not exhibit abnormal behavior
PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTANCE
tendency to resist being influenced or manipulated by others, usually doing the oppositve of what is desired or expected
ROBBER'S CAVE STUDY (SHERIF)
Sherif's research at boy's camp demonstrated that the most effective way to reduce intergroup hostility is having the members of the groups cooperate to achieve mutual (superordinate) goal
SCHACHTER & SINGER'S EPINEPHRINE STUDIES
perception of emotion that showed that there is not physiological difference between emotions & the perception of emotions depends on combo of physiological arousal and cognitive label for that arousal
SCHEMATA (SCHEMAS)
cognitive structures that organize past info and experience and provide a framework for processing and understanding new information and experiences
SELF-MONITORING
need for and ability to manage impression that others form of us;
HIGH SELF-MONITORS VS. LOW SELF-MONITORS
"public self" and strive to match their attitudes and behaviors to situation vs. guided by own beliefs and values and alter the situation to match their "private self"
SELF-PERCEPTION THEORY
theory that individuals make attributions about their own attidues and behaviors on the basis of observations of their behaviors and other external cues
SELF-SERVING BIAS
causal attributions, the tendency to attribute on'es successes to internal factors and one's failures to external factors
SELF-VERIFICATION THEORY
predicts that people prefer accurate information (ie. info that is consistent with one's self-evaluations)
SOCIAL COMPARISON THEORY
theory that individuals use other (usually similar) people as sources of comparison to evaluate their own attitudes and behaviors
SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY
a theory of interpersonal relationships that focuses on the magnitude of costs and rewards
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
type of learning that occurs simply aar of observing the behavior of a model; used to explain acquisition of aggressive behaviors
SOCIAL JUDGMENT THEORY
theory of attitude change that predicts that we have 3 'categories of judgment' by which we evaluate persuasive message--latitude of acceptance, latitude of noncommitment, latitude of rejection--and we are most likely to be persuaded when the message is within our latitude of acceptance
SUPERORDINATE GOALS
goals that can be achieved only when individuals or members of different groups work together cooperatively; found useful for reducing intergroup conflict
SYMBOLIC (MODERN) RACISM
theory about current, less blatant forms of racism that reflect a combination of anti-African American attitudes, strong support for traditional American values and belief that AA violate those values
THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR
theory predicts that attidues are accurate predictors when the attitude measure assesses all three components of behavioral intention--person's attitude toward engaging in behavior, what the person believes other people think he/she should do, and person's perceived behavioral control
THREAT OF RETALIATION
often reduces aggressiveness, especially when it comes from a person with high status or power
ZEIGARNIK EFFECT
tendency to remember interuppted and unfinished tasks better than completed ones
Coecive bases of social power
influencing agent has control over punishments
REWARD BASE OF SOCIAL POWER
influencing agent has control over valued rewards and resources
EXPERNT BASE OF SOCIAL POWER
influencing agent is believed to have superior ability, skills, or knowledge
REFERENT BASE OF SOCIAL POWER
the target is attracted to, likes, identifies with the influencing agent
LEGITIMATE BASE OF SOCIAL POWER
target believes the influencing agent has legitimate authority
INFORMATIONAL BASE OF SOCIAL POWER
influencing agent possesses specific information that is needed by the target person
1. COMPLIANCE-Kelman's (1961) social influence effects on behavior
occurs when person changes behaivor in order to obtain reward or avoid punishment; public and does not involve private change in opinion or attitudes
2. IDENTIFICATION-Kelman's (1961) social influence effects on behavior
occurs when person changes her behavior b/c wants to be liked or identifed with another person; behavior change reflects private change in opinion or attitude, but change is maintained only as long as the person continues to like or admire influencing agent
3. INTERNALIZATION-Kelman's (1961) social influence effects on behavior
occurs when individual changes her behavior b/c she actually (privately) accepts the beliefs, attitudes, or behavior of another
LEVEL OF DISCREPANCY
change in attitude greatest when discrepancy btn position of the recipient and communcation is in moderate range; as communicator's credibility increases, a larger discrepancy is associated with most attitude change
PRIMACY EFFECT
if 2nd communication immeidate follows the first and the measure of attidue change is taken at a later time
RECENCY EFFECTS
more likely when there is a period of time btn communications and attitude measure is administered immediately after the 2nd communication
MISERY LOVES MISERABLE COMPANY
Schachter's conclusion that people like to affiliate with those in similar circumstances
MOTIVATIONAL CONFLICTS
Lewin distinguished between 3 motivational conflicts: approach/approach, avoidance/avoidance, approach/avoidance--both positive and negative and difficult to resolve
OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY (MILGRAM)
controversial research which evaluated participants willingness to obey high status individual even when doing so seemed to harm another
OVERJUSTIFICATION HYPOTHESIS
notion that, when people are externally rewarded for a task they previously found intrinsically interesting, their intrinsic interest of the task will decrease
PRISON STUDY (ZIMBARDO)
prison simulation study which demonstrated that people alter their behaviors to fit their assigned role
PSEUDOPATIENT STUDY (ROSENHAN)
demonstrated the roles of social context and labeling on impression formation; onced admitted to mental hospital, pseudopatients were viewed as mental patients even though they did not exhibit abnormal behavior
PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTANCE
tendency to resist being influenced or manipulated by others, usually doing the oppositve of what is desired or expected
ROBBER'S CAVE STUDY (SHERIF)
Sherif's research at boy's camp demonstrated that the most effective way to reduce intergroup hostility is having the members of the groups cooperate to achieve mutual (superordinate) goal
SCHACHTER & SINGER'S EPINEPHRINE STUDIES
perception of emotion that showed that there is not physiological difference between emotions & the perception of emotions depends on combo of physiological arousal and cognitive label for that arousal
SCHEMATA (SCHEMAS)
cognitive structures that organize past info and experience and provide a framework for processing and understanding new information and experiences
SELF-MONITORING
need for and ability to manage impression that others form of us;
HIGH SELF-MONITORS VS. LOW SELF-MONITORS
"public self" and strive to match their attitudes and behaviors to situation vs. guided by own beliefs and values and alter the situation to match their "private self"
SELF-PERCEPTION THEORY
theory that individuals make attributions about their own attidues and behaviors on the basis of observations of their behaviors and other external cues
SELF-SERVING BIAS
causal attributions, the tendency to attribute on'es successes to internal factors and one's failures to external factors
SELF-VERIFICATION THEORY
predicts that people prefer accurate information (ie. info that is consistent with one's self-evaluations)
PLURALISTIC IGNORANCE
bystanders conclude that assitance is unncessary b/c others are not offering asssitance
EVALUATION APPREHENSION
bystanders do not help b/c of fear of social disapproval
DIFFUSION OF RESPONSIBILITY
bystanders do not accept personal responsibility for helping b/c they assume that others will help
APPROACH/APPROACH
occurs when we are attracted by two equally desirable goals
AVOIDANCE/AVOIDANCE
involves 2 undesirable alternatives
APPROACH/AVOIDANCE
when goal has both positive and negatives; difficult to resolve b/c as we move closer to goal the avoidance force becomes stronger but we move away from the goal, the approach force increases