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69 Cards in this Set

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Cognitive Dissonance
a drive or feeling of discomfort, caused by holding 2 or more inconsistent cogs and then acting contrary to typical positive self perception
Postdecision Dissoance
dissonance aroused after a decision, typically reduced by uping attractiveness of decision
Lowballing
drawing customer to agree to low price then claim error and up the price
Justification of Effort
tendency of individuals to increase liking if they have worked hard to attain something
External Justification
a reason or explanation for dissonant personal behavior that resides outside individual
Internal Justification
reduction of dissonace by changing something about self
Counterattitudinal Advocacy
stating an opinion or attitude that runs counter to one's private belief or attitude
Insufficient Punishment
the dissonance aroused when individuals lack sufficient external justification for having resited a desired activity or object (devalue object)
Self-Persuasion
A long-lasting form of attitude change resulting from attempts ar self-justification
Self-Discrepancy
the idea that people become distressed when their sense of actual self differs from ideal
Self-Evaluation Maintenance Theory
one's self-concept can be threatened by another individual's behav and that the level of threat is determined by both closeness of other individ. and personal relevance of behav.
Self-Affirmation Theory
people will reduce impact of a dissonance threat to their self-concept by focusing on and affirming some other competence
Self-Verification Theory
idea that some people have a need to seek confirm of self-concept, be it pos or neg; can conflict with need for pos image
Self-Justification
tendency to justify one's actions in order to maintain self-esteem
Rationalization Trap
the potential for dissonace recution to produce a succession of self-justifications ultimately leading to stupid, immoral acts
Cognitively Based Attitude
based primarily on people's beliefs about the properties of an object
Affectively Based Attitude
based more on people's feelings and values than on beliefs about the nature of an attitude object
Explicit Attitudes
we consciously endorse and can easily support
Implicit Attitudes
involuntary, uncontrollable
Yale Attitude Change Approach
study of conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages focusing on "who said what to whom"-- source of communication, nature of, and nature of audience
Elaboration Likelihood Model
Exlmantion of 2 ways which persuasive communications can cause attitude change; centrally, when people have time and attention; peripherally, no attention
Central Route to Persuasion
case wherby people elaborate on a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments (time and motive)
Heuristic-Systematic Model of Persuasion
an explanation of the two ways in whcih persuasive comms can cause attitude change; systematically processing merits of arguements or mental shortcuts (experts=right)
Attitude Inoculation
making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of arguments against their position
Reactance Theory
idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behav is threatened, an unpleasant state of reactance is aroused, which they can reduce by performing the threatened behav
Attitude Accessibilty
strength of association b/w an attitude object and a person's evaluation of object, measured by speed of report on feelings towards objects
Theory of Planned Behavior
idea that the best predictors of a person's planned, deliberate behavs are person's attitudes toward specific behave, subjective norms, and perceived behav control
Stereotype Threat
the apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype
Informational Social Influence
leads us to conform b/c we see them as a source of info to guide our behav
Private Acceptance
conforming to other people's behav out of a genuine belief that it's right
Public Compliance
conforming to other people's behav publicly without neccessarily believing in what we are doing or saying
Cogtagion
the rapid spread of emotions or behavs through a crowd
Mass Psychogenic Illness
the occurence, in a group of people, of similar phys symptoms with no known phys cause
Normative Social Influence
other people lead us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them
Social Impact Theory
the idea that conforming to social influence depends on the strengt of the group's importance, its immediacy, and the nmber of people in the group
Idiosyncracy Credits
the tolerance a person earns, over time, by conforming to group norms; if enough normal, can occasionally behave deviant
Minority Influence
case where a minority of group mems influence the behav or beliefs of major
Injunctive Norms
people's perceptions of what behav are approced or disapproved of by others
Descriptive Norms
people's perceptions of how people actually behave in given situations, regardless of whether the behav is approved or dis. by others
Social Facilitation
the tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual persormance can be eval.
Social Loafing
tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks but better on complex when they are in presence of others and indiv. effort can't be eval
Deindividuation
the loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people are in a crowd, leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts
Process Loss
any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving
Transactive Memory
combined memory of two people that is more efficient than the mem of either indiv
Groupthink
a king of thinking in which mainstreaming group cohesiveness is more imprt than considering the facts in a realistic manner
Group Polarization
the tendency for groups to make decisions thaqt are more extreme than the initial inclinations of its members
Great Person Theory
the idea that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader regardless of sit
Contingency Theory of Leadership
the idea that leadership effectiveness depends both on how task-oriented or relationship-oriented the leader is on the amount of control and influence the leader has over group
Task-Oriented Leader
more concerned with getting job done than group relations (best in high/low control)
Relationship-Oriented Leader
a leader who is concerned primarily with workers' feelings and relationships (best in moderate control)
Social Dilemma
conflict in which the most benficial action for an indiv will harm everyone (if most people)
Tit-for-Tat Strategy
a means of encouraging cooperation by at first acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did before you
Public Goods Dilemma
indivs must contribute to common pool to maintain public good
Commons Dilemma
everyone takes from a common pool of goods that will replenish itself if used in mod but disappear if overused
Negotiation
form of comm b/w opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counterofferes are made and solution occurs when both parties agree
Integrative Solution
parties make trade-offs on issues according to diff interests
Propinquity Effect (akin to "mere exposure effect)
The finding that the mroe we see and interact, more likely to become friends
Social Exchange Theory
the idea that people's feelings about relationship depend on perceptions of rewards and costs of relationship, the kind of relationship they deserve, and their chances for better
equity Theory
idea that people are happiest with relationships in which the rewards and costs experienced and contribs made by both parties =
Triangular Theory of Love
the idea that different kinds of love consist of varying degrees of 3 components: intimacy, passion, and commitment
Attachment Styles
the expectation people develop about relationships with others, based on relationship with primary caregiver as infant
Secure Attachment Style
characterized by trust, a lack of concern w/ being abandoned, and the view that one is worthy and well liked
Avoidant Attachment Style
an attachment style cahracterized by suppression of attachment needs, b/c attempts have been rebuffed in past; difficult to develop intimate rela
Anxious/Avoidant Attachment Style
concern that others will not reciprocate one's desire for intimacy, resulting in higher-than-average levels of anxiety
Investment Model
people's commitment to a relationship depends not only on their satisfaction w/ the relationship in terms of rewards, costs (investments and possible losses), and comparison level and their comparison level for alternatives
Exchange Relationships
relationships governed by the need for equity
Communal Relationships
relationships in which people's primary concern is being responsive to the other person's needs
Injunctive Norms
people's perceptions of what behavs are approced or disapproved of by others
Descriptive Norms
perceptions of how people actually behave in a given sit, regard of whether behave is approved of