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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Conformity
A change in one's behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people
Informational Social Influence
The influence of other people that leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior; we conform because we believe that others' interpretations of an ambiguous situation is more correct than ours and will help us choose an appropriate course of action
Private Acceptance
Conforming to other people's behavior out of a genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right
Public Compliance
Conforming to other people's behavior publicly without necessarily believing in what the other people are doing or saying
Contagion
The rapid spread of emotions or behaviors through a crowd
Mass Psychogenic Illness
The occurrence, in a group of people, of similar physical symptoms with no known physical cause
Social Norms
The implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors, values, and beliefs of its members
Normative Social Influence
The influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them; this type of conformity results in public compliance with the group's beliefs and behaviors but not necessarily private acceptance of those beliefs and behaviors
Social Impact Theory
The idea that conforming to social influence depends on the strength of the group's importance, its immediacy, and the number of people in the group
Idiosyncrasy Credits
The tolerance a person earns, over time, by conforming to group norms; if enough of these are earned, the person can, on occasion, behave deviantly without retribution from the group
Minority Influence
The case where a minority of group members influences the behavior or beliefs of the majority
Injunctive Norms
People's perceptions of what behaviors are approved or disapproved of by others
Descriptive Norms
People's perceptions of how people actually behave in given situations, regardless of whether the behavior is approved or disapproved of by others
Group
Three or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other
Social Roles
Shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave
Group Cohesiveness
Qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking between members
Social Facilitation
The tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated
Social Loafing
The tendency for people to relax when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated, such that they do worse on simple tasks but better on complex tasks
Deindividuation
The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can't be identified (such as when they are in a crowd)
Process Loss
Any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving
Transactive Memory
The combined memory of two people that is more efficient that the memory of either individual
Groupthink
A kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner
Group Polarization
The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of its members
Great Person Theory
The idea that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader, regardless of the situation
Transactional Leaders
Leaders who set clear, short-term goals and rewards people who meet them
Transformational Leaders
Leaders who inspire followers to focus on common, long-term goals
Contingency Theory of Leadership
The idea that leadership effectiveness depends both on how task-oriented or relationship-oriented the leader is and on the amount of control and influence the leader has over the group
Task-Oriented Leader
A leader who is concerned more with getting the job done than with workers' feelings and relationships
Relationship-Oriented Leader
A leader who is concerned primarily with workers' feelings and relationships
Social Dilemma
A conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual will, if chosen by most people, have harmful effects on everyone
Tit-for-Tat Strategy
A means of encouraging cooperation by at first acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did (cooperatively or competitively) on the previous trial
Public Goods Dilemma
A social dilemma in which individuals must contribute to a common pool in order to maintain the public good
ex. paying taxes for schools
Commons Dilemma
A social dilemma in which everyone takes from a common pool of goods that will replenish intself if used in moderation but will disappear if overused
Negotiation
A form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree
Integrative Solution
A solution to a conflict whereby the parties make trade-offs on issues according to their different interests; each sides concedes the most on issues that are unimportant to it but important to the other side
Attitudes
Evaluations of people, objects, and ideas
Cognitively Based Attitude
An attitude based primarily on people's beliefs about the properties of an attitude object
Affectively Based Attitude
An attitude based more on people's feelings and values than on their beliefs about the nature of an attitude object
Classical Conditioning
The phenomenon whereby a stimulus that elicits an emotional response (e.g., your grandmother) is repeatedly paired with a neutral stimulus that does not (e.g., the smell of mothballs) until the neutral stimulus take on the emotional properties of the first stimulus
Operant Conditioning
The phenomenon whereby behaviors we freely choose to perform become more or less frequent, depending on whether they are followed by a reward (positive reinforcement) or punishment
Behaviorally Based Attitude
An attitude based on observations of how one behaves toward an attitude object
Explicit Attitudes
Attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report
Implicit Attitudes
Attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times unconscious
Persuasive Communication
Communication (e.g., a speech or television ad) advocating a particular side of an issue
Yale Attitude Change Approach
The study of the conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages, focusing on "who said what to whom"- the source of the communication, the nature of the communication, and the nature of the audience
Elaboration Likelihood Model
A model explaining two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change; centrally, when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication, and peripherally, when people do not pay attention to the arguments by are instead swayed by surface characteristics (e.g., who gave the speech)
Central Route to Persuasion
The case whereby people elaborate on a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments, as occurs when people have both the ability and the motivation to listen carefully to a communication
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
The case whereby people do not elaborate on the arguments in a persuasive communication but are instead swayed by external cues
Need for Cognition
A personality variable reflecting the extent to which people engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activities
Attitude Inoculation
Making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position
Reactance Theory
The idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, an unpleasant state of reactance is aroused, which they can reduce by performing the threatened behavior
Attitude Accessibility
The strength of the association between at attitude object and a person's evaluation of that object, measured by the speed with which people can report how they feel about the object
Theory of Planned Behavior
The idea that the best predictors of a person's planned, deliberate behaviors are the person's attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control
Subliminal Messages
Words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may nevertheless influence people's judgments, attitudes, and behaviors
Strength, Immediacy, Number
Variables of the Social Impact Theory
The source of the communication, the communication itself (e.g. the quality of the arguments), and the nature of the audience
Who said what to whom
The conditions of the Yale Attitude Change Approach
The Sleeper Effect
Over time we remember the message but not who gave it
Obedience to Authority
Liking
Social Comparison
Reciprocation
Consistency and Commitment
Scarcity

(Only Little Sisters Really Can Scare)
The Processes or Principles underlying Social Influence Attempts
Coercive Power
Legitimate Power
Reward Power
Expert Power
Referent Power
Informational Power

(Conservatives Like Realizing Expensive Red Issues)
The Types of Power Available for Social Influence
Propinquity
Emotion
Need for Affiliation
The 3 Most Important Determinants of Attraction
obedience
only
liking
little
social comparison
sisters
reciprocation
really

(processes)
consistency and commitment
can
scarcity
scared
coercive
conservatives
legitimate
like
reward
realizing
expert
expensive
referent
red
informational
issues