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61 Cards in this Set

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Social influence
how people interact in their social role
Attitude
evaluation and behavior towards social object
To have an attitude helps...how?
*Information - efficient easy
*Social Adjustment - adjust to get good things socially
*Utilitarian - good/bad things generally
*Ego defensive - feel better about yourself
Value > ______
attitudes
Temperment
predisposition (babies)
Species-based behavior
strong tendency towards imitation, modeling
Social contagion
imitating
Where do our attitudes come from?
1. Species Based Behavior
2. Mere Exposure
3. Conditioning
BI=f(sumA)+(SN)*(MC)
Behavioral intention is a function of the sum of a persons attitudes plus their subjective norms times their motivation to comply
When you only attribute behavior to attitudes, you make ______ error.
the Fundamental Attribution Error
Internalization
When my behavior is a product of internal attitudes (no external)
Compliance: 2 forces?
reward/cost
identification
If I'm interested in producing behavior aim for _______
internalization
Predicting behavior depends on...
1. specificity
2. personal experience
3. accessible
4. strength
Accesibility
attitude that is more accessible is stronger (timed response tests)
Persuasion
you change your thoughts because of someone else
Cognitive dissonance
you change your own attitude; we look for balance, disturbed when imbalanced, adjust ourselves
Ways of handling discomfort from cognitive dissonance...
1. distraction
2. diminish importance
3. change attitude (or if possible behavior)
Insufficient justification
don't do something and reason for not doing it not good enough
Insufficient punishment
don't do something and reason for not doing it not good enough
Theory of Reasoned Action
BI=SumAttitudes + (SN+MC)
Autokinetic Effect
dot light...how far did it move...copy other person's guess
Compliance
behavior produced completely by external forces
Effort justification
I engaged in all this behavior to get here so I must like it
Post-Decisional Dissonance
two items similar in liking became very different after
Why we change our attitude?
1. insufficient justification
2. insufficient punishment
3. effort justification
4. post-decisional dissonance
For dissonance to occur, I must feel like I am using my _____.
free choice; there should be no external force affecting my decision
Do we always need consistency/consonance?
No: you like chicken
chicken likes chicken feed
you do not like chicken feed
no need for consistency here
Self perception theory
you know who you are by watching your own behavior
Persuasion
the process by which attitudes are changed
_______ can change over time in the BI equation.
(SN*MC) --- can change over time, social environments can change, ex. Bennington Study
Elaboration Likelihood Model
central more
Why c.d. effects happen without need for consistency?
self perception theory
self presentation
self esteem
Best luck changing opinions in ______.
latitude of acceptance
Social Impact Theory
SIN Theory
Strength - of pressure
Immediacy
Number - how many persuaders
Social Diffusion
Forces diffused across more people
ex Citadel - 1 woman; VMI 15
Applied Persuasion
marketing, campaigning, religion, communication
Three elements of persuasion
Source
Message
Persuasion
Motivational Approach
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs:phys., safety, belongingness, self esteem, self actualization
Using fear in ads
1. create fear
2. convince it will happen
3. solution
2 approaches in persuasion
motivational (Freud, Maslow, emotions)
cognitive (central peripheral)
Peripheral
persuasion efforts with cues - heuristics
vulnerable to change
Central
arguments and evidence
stable attitude
Boomerang effect
too strong arguments send the "persuadees" more in the opposite direction
Why don't people change their minds?
1. avoid
2. respond with their own attitude or schema (2sided)
Subliminal approach
sneak in info; can raise attitudes but not persuade change
Distraction/Cognitive Overload
in persuasion, gets people to not think
Forewarning
tell people you will persuade them...gives people time to form arguments
Innoculation
protect against persuasion; give them a little argument, they must form more on their own
Elements of persuasion
1. Pique effect
2. Social Validation
3. Scarcity
Pique effect
element of persuasion; capture attention
Social Validation
persuasion element; "Everybody's doing it"
Scarcity
persuasion element; more scarce, more valuable, more i want it
Foot in the door
persuasion element; ask small then big
Low ball
persuasion element; get to commit to x...only have y ...more likely to then to commit to y
Door in the face
persuasion element; ask big then little
- reciprocity
Descriptive norm
what people actually do
Prescriptive norm
desired behavior - whether done or not
Strong situation
many clear and powerful norms, most people behave same way
Weak situation
few weak norms, variation in social behavior
Conform
mold your behavior to someone elses