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13 Cards in this Set

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voir dire
the pretrial examination of prospective jurors by the judge or opposing lawyers to uncover signs of bias
peremptory challenge
a means by which lawyers can exclude a limited number of prospective jurors without the judge's approval
scientific jury selection
a method of selecting juries through surveys that yield correlations between demographics and trial-relevant attitudes
death qualification
a jury-delection procedure used in capital cases that permits judges to exclude prospective jurors who say they would not vote for the death penalty
polygraph
a mechanical instrument that records physiological arousal from mutiple channels; it is often used as a lie-detector test
weapon-focus effect
the tendency for the presence of a weapon to draw attention and impair a witness's ability to identify the culprit
cross-race identification bias
the tendency for people to have difficulty identifying members of a race other than their own
misinformation effect
the tendency for false postevent infromation to become integrated into people's memory of an event
jury nulification
the jury's power to disregard, or "nullify", the law when it conflicts with personal conceptions of justice
leniency bias
the tendency for jury deliberation to produce a tilt towards acquittal
sentencing disparity
inconsistency of sentences for the same offense from one judge to another
adversarial model
a dispute-resolution system in which the prosecution and defense present oppoising sides of the story
inquisitional model
a dispute-resolution system in which a neutral investigator gathers evidence from both sides and presnts the findings in court