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29 Cards in this Set

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Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (w/self-justification)
a feeling of unpleasant arousal caused by noticing an inconsistency among one's cognitions (Festinger, 1957)
Festinger, 1957
Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (w/self-justification)
in self-justification as the individual attempts to deal with the threat. Cognitive dissonance typically leads to a change in attitude, a leads to change in behavior, a self-affirmation, or a rationalization of the behavior.
deal with the threat
Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (w/self-justification)
*change behavior to bring it in line with DC
*attempt to justify our behavior by changing one’s DC
*attempt to justify our behavior by adding new cognition

Encounter such feelings of irrational vs. reasonable, immoral vs. moral, stupid vs. smart
feelings of unpleasant arousal
Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (w/self-justification)
(Lack of sufficient external justification) people may lie to justify a threat
$1.00 vs. $20.00
Self-perception theory of attitude formation and change.
infer their attitudes from their own behavior in the same way that an outside observer might.
Explicit-conscious
Self-perception theory of attitude formation and change.
Self-perception theory is a special case of attribution theory. Therefore, self-attribution proceeds when internal cues are weak or ambiguous
escape goat for attitude
Self-perception theory of attitude formation and change.
people explain (or attribute) the behavior of others, or themselves (self-attribution). It explores how individuals "attribute" causes to events and how this cognitive perception affects their motivation. Think of "explanation" as a synonym, "why" as the question to be answered and "story" for the answer that is built or fancied.
Implicit-unconscious(uncontrollable)
Elaboration Likelihood Model (influence attitude change)
model of how persuasive communication can cause formation or changed attitude. Depending on the extent of elaboration, different processes can mediate persuasion.
Petty & Cacioppo, 1981, 1986
Elaboration Likelihood Model (influence attitude change)
When people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication & peripherally, when people do not pay attention to the argument but are instead swayed by the surface characteristics (who gave speech)
who gave speech
Elaboration Likelihood Model (influence attitude change)
Central
Processing-In-Depth Thought; Detailed Analyses of Information; think through
In-Depth Thought
Elaboration Likelihood Model (influence attitude change)
Peripheral
Processing-“Lazy” Thinking; Superficial Analyses of Information: Gut, emotion,lack details decisions
“Lazy-Thought”
Factors that can lead to aggressive behavior
Conflicts:War, sports, media,physiology,discomfort,stress
Conflicts
Factors that can lead to aggressive behavior
hormonal imbalances impact on behavior,economic deprivation,family conflicts. & power relations of society as whole, aggression arises as a function of control of one group by another.
endocrinology & sociological
Modeling hypothesis (affect violent behavior)
learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished
imitating
Modeling hypothesis (affect violent behavior)
catharsis
emotional release; aggressive drive is reduced when one releases aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression
emotional release
"Pornography"( evidence of definition)
EROTIC MATERIAL THAT COMBINES ELEMENTS OF SEXUALITY AND AGGRESSION, AND IN WHICH FORCE OR COERSION IS USED TO ACCOMPLISH THE SEXUAL ACT
"P"
"Pornography"( evidence of definition)
as the term applies to the depiction or reproduction of the act, rather than the act itself (The Meese Report)
Meese
Self-fulfilling prophecy (lead to prejudicial beliefs)
a false definition of the situation evoking a new behaviour which makes the original false conception come true
True/False conception
Self-fulfilling prophecy (lead to prejudicial beliefs)
the process by which someone's expectations about a person or group leads to the fulfillment of those expectations
someone's expectations
Allport's 3 principles to reduce prejudice
JIGSAW METHOD: each member dependent on other members for learning all parts of the jigsaw. Not only reduces ethnic stereotyping and increases attraction to members of diff. ethnic groups but also enhanced students' cooperation, self-esteem, and attitudes toward school.
cooperation
Allport's 3 principles to reduce prejudice
1. Support of Authority
2. Equal Status Contact
3. Work on Common Goals
ALLPORT's Keys
how/why fear communicates appeals affect people's attitudes/ behavior.
When the process message communicates a moderate amount of fear it stimulates interest people pay attention
TRUTH
Theory of Reasoned Action (AKA;Theory of Planned Behavior w/attitudes & behaviors
that people's conscious decisions to engage in specific actions are determined by their attitudes toward the behavior in question, the relevant subjective norms, and their perceived behavioral control
Forecast Behavior
Physical attractiveness(prejudice)
LESS ATTRACTIVE FEMALES PERCEIVED AS FEMINIST

NO DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MALES & FEMALES
NO EFFECT OF RATER ATTITUDES REGARDING WOMEN'S LIBERATION
WOMEN'S LIBERATION
Physical attractiveness(prejudice)
KEY IS PERCEPTION OF LEVELS OF FEMININITY. IF HIGHLY FEMININE, NOT SEEN AS VERY CAPABLE.

MALE TRAITS SEEN AS SIMILAR TO LEADERSHIP TRAITS
LEADERSHIP TRAITS
3-componet model of attitudes
*Affective means having to do with emotion.
*Behavior or behaviour refers to the actions or reactions of an object. or organism, usually in relation to the environment.
*Cognition, the mental processes underlying behavior
ABC's
Studies of found biases
(gender/race)
Field Theory
FIELD THEORY: human behavior always function of person and physical and social environment with pre-determined lables
Studies of found biases
(gender/race)
Behavioral confirmation- interviwer studies-
Part 1
White participants interviewed white and black confederates as job applicants who were trained to act exactly the same.
When the job applicant was black the participants sat farther away, ended 25% earlier, and made 50% more speech errors.
Part 2
Trained interviewers interview white participant in one of two interview strategies. “white/white” or “white/black” (ending sooner, stumbling)
Part 3
New participants rated videotapes of the interviews.
Particpants rated the “white/black interview style” were rated as less adequate, less friendly and less likely to get the job
Studies of found biases
(gender/race)
Resumes mailed and biases
MIT researchers sent resumes randomly assigned "white" last names or "black" last names. White resumes were called 1/10. black resumes were called 1/15.