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216 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social Psychology
-the scientific study of the way in which people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influence by the real or imagined presence of others
-located bwt sociology and personality psychology
Social Influence
the effect that words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior
-way in which people perceive, comprehend, and interpert the social world
-social psy in interested in how people are influenced by their interpretation of their social environment
Two motives bias our view of environment
-desire to feel good about ourselves (self-esteem)
-desire to view world accuractely (social cognition)
*two motive can come in conflict with one another (gain most valuable insight)
Social psychologist's preferred method of understanding influence vs alternative ways
-social psychology is experimentally based
-journalists, instant experts, and social critics rely on commonsense explanation
-philosophers are creative and analytical thinking
-social psy and philosophy address many of the same questions (differ in how go about answering)
Individual differences
-the aspects of people's personalities that make them different from other people
-individual differences are not so important to social psychologists
-ignore powerful role played by social influences
How are people sensitive to social influence?
-social context is important
-individual differences are not so important
-emphasis on how people construe social environment
Level of Analysis
-social psychologist, level of anaylsis is the individual in the context of a social situation
-sociologists are more likely to be concerned with a particular society or group within a society; provide general laws and theories about societies, not individuals
Goal of social psychology
-identify universal properties of human nature that make everyone susceptible to social influence, regardless of social class or culture
How do social psychologists and personality psychologists differ in terms of the topics of study they emphaize?
-social psychology studies the psychological processes people have in common with one another that make them susceptible to socail influence
-personality psychology studies the characteristics that make individuals unique and different from one another
Fundamental Attribution Errors
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which people's behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors
Gestalt Psycholog
-school of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in people's minds, rather than the objective, physical attributes of the object
-whole is different from the sum of its parts
How did Gestalt principles influence social pyschological thought?
-emphasis on contruals, the way people interpert the social situation has its roots in this
-people's evaluations of their own self-worth, that is the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent
-need to maintain favorable image of self
Underlying motvies emphasized by the self-esteem approach
-human beings are motivated to maintain a positive picture of themselves in part by justifying their past behavior
-under certain specifiable conditions, this leads them to do things that at first glance might seem suprising or paradoxical
Social Cognition
-how people think about themselves and the social world
-begin with assumption that all people try to view the world as accurately as possible
Self-fulfilling prophecy
-people (1) have an expectation about what another person is like which (2) influences how they act toward that person which (3) causes that person to be behave consistently with people's originial expectations, making the expectations come true
-expectations interfere with perceiving social world accurately
-can even change nature of social world
Characteristics of Social Psychology
-relies on empirical tests of ideas (common sense has no criteria)
-takes the individual or small groups as the unit of analysis
-explains behavior using construals
-seeks to develop universal laws of behavior
What is a hypothesis? How do researchers generate them?
-testable idea following a theory
-generate hypothesis from previous theories/research
-disatisfaction with existing theories/explanations
-base on personal observations
Why is methodology important?
-good method, able to learn something about adequacy of theory
-studpid method, can't confirm or disconfirm theory
Observational Method
-describe what a particular group of people or type of behavior is like
-description focus
-anser what is the nature of the phenomenon
-ethnography and participant observation (current behaviors)
-archival research (past behavior)
-observe group by observing it from inside, w/o imposing any preconceived notions they might have
Participant Observation
-observer interacts w/ the people being observed but tries not to alter the situation in any way
-become part of group
Interjudge Reliability
level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of data
Archival Anaylsis
-collect artifacts that reflect how people acted in the past
-won't influence behavior at all
-can examine how things change over time BUT often hard to get material you want
-hard to establish casuality
Correlational Method
-measure two or more variables and assess direction and size of relationship between them using correlational coefficient
-focus is prediction
-answer from knowing X can we predict Y?
Observational Method Limitations
-some behaviors are rare (may not see important behavior frequently)
-somethings are private and may not observe it
-observers presence can cause ppl to holdback (inflluence behavior)
-hard to generalize results
-hard to replicate experiments
-hard to est. casuality
Correlational Coefficient
-statistical tech that assesses how well you can predict one variable from another
- +1 perfect postive relationship, 0 no relationship, -1 perfect negative relationship
-part of community, but not representative of community
-bias in one way
-people actually tested
-representative of people in general
Random Selection
-ensures that a sample of people is representative of a population by giving everyone in the population an equal chance of being selected for the sample
-randomization guarantes no bias
-can use statistical analysis to est. error
Limits of Correlational Method
-doesn't tell you cause of behavior
-correlation does not prove causation
-can have a third variable causing the relationship
Experimental Method
-assign participants randomly to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the IV
-focus casuality
-answer is variabl X a cause of variable Y
Independent Variable
-variable researchers changes to see if it has an effect on some other variable
Dependent Variable
-variable researcher measures to see if it is influenced by the IV
-hypothesize that DV will depend on the level of the IV
Internal Validity
-make sure that nothing besides the IV can affect the DV
-control all extraneous variables and randomly assign ppl to different conditions
External Validity
-generalizability to other situations and/or people
-solve for external vality by replicating experiment w/ different people and different situations
Random Assignment to Condition
-ensure all participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment
-researchers can be relatively certain that differences in the participants' personalities or backgrounds are distributed evenly across conditions
Experimental Method Criteria
-randomly assign participants to conditions
-control extraneous variables
-manipulate IV
-measure DV
Mundane Realism
-extent to which an experiment is similar to real-life situations
-attempt to increase generalizability of their results by making the studies as realistic as possible
Psychological Realism
-extent to which psychological processess triggered in an experiment are similiar to psychological processess that occur in everyday life
-psychological realism in an expt. can be high even if mundane realism is low
-heightened if ppl feel involved in a real event
Cover Story
-description of the purpose of a study, given to participants, that is different from its true purpose
-used to maintain psychological realism
-repeating a study, often with different subject populations or in different settings
-only with replications can we be certain about how generalizable the results are
Field Experiment
-experiments conducted in natural settings rather than in the laboratory
-move lab to outside world
-best way to increase external validity
-can't control extraneous variables
Basic dilemma of the social psychologist
-trade-off between internal and external validity
-either have enough control to ensure no extraneous variables influence or make sure results can be generalizable to everyday life
Basic Research
-studies that are designed to find the best answer to the question of why people behave as they do
-they are conducted purely for reasons of intellectual curiousity
Applied Research
-studies designed to solve a particular social problem
-building a theory of behavior is usually secondary to solving the specific problem
Ethical Research
-informed consent
Informed Consent
agreement to participate in an experiment, granted in full awareness of the nature of the experiment, which has been explained in advance
misleading participants about the true purpose of a study or the events that will actually transpire
explaining to participants, at the end of an experiment, the true purpose of the study and exactly what transpired
Automatic Thinking
thinking that is nonconscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless
-mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects
-influence the information people notice, think about, and remember
Where may schemas come from
-personal experience
-cultural experiences
Function of Schemas
-useful for helping us organize and make sense of the world and to fill in the gaps of our knowledge
-particularly important when we encounter information that can be interperted in a number of ways b/c they help to reduce ambiguity
-extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of the mind and are therefore likely to be used when we are making judgments about the social world
-the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept
Two kinds of accessibility
-some schemas can be chronically accessible due to past experienc
-schemas can become temporarily accessible for more arbitrary reasons; happens to be primed by something people have been thinking or doing before encountering an event
Types of Schemas
-person schemas: beliefs we have about traits of certain types of people
-role schema: about ppl who play certaint types of roles (i.e. doctor schema)
-self schemas: views of ourselves
-event schemas: beliefs about ppl typically behave in a situation
Ascribe vs achieved roles
ascribed roles: born into or acquired naturally

achieved roles: obtained from some degree of effort and motivation
Perseverance Effect
the finding that people's beliefs about themselves and the social world persis even after the evidence supporting these beliefs are discredited
Functions of Schemas
-maximize difference bwt categories and minimize differences w/in categories
-recall of old info
-judgement: how we evaluate and make inferences about the social world
making schemas come true
-sefl-fufilling prophecy
-not always passive recipients of information
-often act on schemas in ways that change the extents to which these schemas are supported or contradicted
-self-fulfilling prophecy is example of automatic thinking
Ingroup-Outgroup Schema
-more reward to ingroup members
-success: internal factors (competence)
-failure: external (bad luck)
-success: external (good luck)
-failure: internal (incompetence)
Describe the role of culture in the development of schemas
-schemas are very important way by which cultures exert their influence
-instill mental structures that influence the very way we understand and interpret the world
Judgemental Heuristics
-mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently
-usually highly functional but sometimes are inadequate for the job at hand or are misapplied, leading to faulty judgements
Availability Heuristics
-mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind
-use when making judgments about others and self
-trouble is that sometimes what is easiest to remembe is not typical of the overall picture (faulty conclusions)
Representativeness Heuristics
-mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case (ignore base rate info)
Base Rate Information
information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population
-ppl do not use bast rate info sufficiently, usually focus too much on individual characteristics of whay they observe
Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristics
-use a number or value as a starting point and then adjust insufficiently from this anchor
-can be influenced by completely arbitrary anchor values
Automatic Thinking
-pervasive and dominates much of our mental lives
-can have biases
Controlled Thinking
-conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful
-takes over when unusual events occur
-care enought to analyze a problem thoughtfully
-when stakes are high, ppl use more sophisticated effortful strategies than when the stakes are low and hence make more accurate judgments
Thought Supression
-attempt to avoid thinking about something we would prefer to forget
-rely on both automatic and controlled processes
How can though supression backfire?
-controlled operating process is unable to do job b/c too tired or preoccupied
-results in state of hyperaccessibility in which unwanted thought occurs w/ high frequency
Counterfactual Thinking
-mentally changin some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been
Counterfactual thinking effects on emotions
-influence our emotional reaction to events
-the easier ti is to mentally undo an outcome, the stronger the emotional reaction to it
-can result in rummination, whereby ppl repetively focus on negative things in their lives
Improving human thinking
-make people think a little more humble about their reasoning abilities
-address overconfidence barrier
-teach ppl directly some basic statistical and methodological principles about how to reason correctly w/ hope they can apply these principles in their everyday lives
Impact of mood on cognition
-emtion can be related to schema
-mood can influenc perception of new stimuli
-mood can influence depth of processing
-mood can influence memory
mood can influence creativity
-mood can influence plans and intentions
-mental contamination
Depth of processing
-superficially or deeply
-positive mood: superficially (surface level)
-negative mood: careful processing
mood-dependent memory
-easier to remember info if current mood matches mood during learning
-mood congruence effect
Edwards and Bryan: Juriors and thought suppresion
-told about prior record (emotional or neutral) and said either admissable or not
-neutral info: low guilt for new crime, no effect of admissability
-emotional info: higher guilt, esp in nonadmissable condition (try not to think about it, think about it more)
Nonverbal Communication
-how people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, with out words
-nonverbal cues:
facial expression, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement, the use of touch, and gaze
Describe the four primary uses of nonverbal communication
1. expressing emotion
2. conveying attitude
3. communicating one's personality traits
4. facilitating and communication
Evolution of facial expressions
-primary emotions conveyed by the face are universal
-all humans encode (express) emotions in the same way and decode (interpret) them with equal accuracy
-once useful physiological reactions
-not product of people's cultural experience
Six major facial expressions
Describe the 3 factors that can decrease decoding accuracy
1. people frequently display affet blends
2. at times people try to appear less emotional than they are so that no one will know how they really feel
3. culture
Affect Blend
a facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers a different emotion
Cultural Differences in nonverbal communication
-display rules
-eye contact and gaze are powerful nonverbal cues influenced by culture
-each culture has own emblems
Display Rules
culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
-nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions w/in a given culture
-usually have direct verbal translation (i.e. "ok" sign)
Describe gender differences in nonverbal communication
-women are better at decoding and encoding
-men are better at detecting lies
-gender role expectations and sex-typed skills combine to produce sex differences in social behavior
Social Role Theory
-sex differences in social behavior are due to societys division of labor bwt the sexes
-this division leads to differences in gender-role expectations and sex-typed skills, both of which are responsible for differences in men's and women's social behavior
Implicit Personality Theories
-a type of schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together
-developed over time and with experience
-strongly tied to culture
Internal Attribution
-inference that a person is behaving in a certain way b/c of something about the person, such as attitude, character, or personality
-dispositional attributions
External Attributions
-inference that a person is behaving a certain way b/c of something about the situation he or she is in
-assumption is that most people would respond the same way in that situation
-situational attribution
Attribution Theory
-a description of the way in which ppl explain the cause of their own and other people's behavior
Kelley's Covariation Model
-form an attribution about what caused a person's behavior by exmaning multiple instances of behavior, occuring at different times and in different situations
Process of Covariation Model
-gather info/data
-the data we use are how a person's behavior "covaries" or changes across time
-examine three types of information: consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency
-make attributions in rational, logical way
Consensus Information
-extent to which other ppl behave the same way toward the same stimulus as teh actor does
Distinctiveness Information
-info about the extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli
Consistency Information
extent to which the bahavior bwt one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances
Attributions we make with 3 types of Info
-internal attributions when consensus and distinctiveness of the act are low but consistency is high
-external attributions if consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus are all high
-if consistency is low can't make clear internal or external attribution
Fundamental Attribution Error
-tendency to over estimate the extent to which people's behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors
-more like personality psychologist
b/c see behavior as stemming from internal disposition and traits
Jone and Harris: FAE with essays
-told participants to read essays that were either pro or anti Castro
-2 conditions: said writer was told to write essay about this or told that writer could write about whatevery they want
-task: rate opinion of wirter on essay topic
Jone and Harris: results
-even if told that had to write about castro, ppl still assumed writers feelings were internal
Why do we commit FAE?
-misunderstanding situation
-desire for control, desire to predict others' behavior
-situational forces are recognized, but assumed to be weak (perceptual salience)
-only have certain amount of cog resource to use to make attribution
Perceptual Salience
-the seeming importance of information that is the focus of people's attention
-can't see situation so ignore it
-people not situation have perceptual salience for us (pay attention to them)
Miller, Norma, and Wright: desire to predict others' behavior
-subject watched others play game either cooperatively or competitive
-subjects were players, 3rd party, or expectant observors
-asked what's the cause of the guys behavior
Miller, Norma, and Wright: results
-more dispositional attribution by players and expectant observors than by 3rd party
-b/c those two groups have stake in it
Ross, Amabile, and Steinmetz: misunderstanding situations
-play game: one person makes up questions (quiz master), another answers, and 3rd person observers
-quizmaster made up hard questions and at end all 3 were asked how knowledgable are quiz master and contestant
Ross, Amabile, and Steinmetz: results
-everyone rated quizmaster more knowledgable than contestant
-even when situational are clear, make dispostional not situational attributions
Sherman: situational forces recognized but assumed weak
-asked would you write essay about how shouldn't have coed dorms
-most people answered no, but when told they had to by experimenter they did
-ppl don't imagine situations fully (hard to put self in situation)
two-step process in making attributions
-intially make an internal attribution
-may adjust attribution or revise under certain conditions
Conditions for revision
-got information about the situation
-have mental resources (cog energy)
-need to consciously slow down and think so if resources are used up or busy don't revise and "stuck" with dispostional attribution
Gilbert, Pelham, and Kroll: making attribution
-subject observe woman having convo w/ another person
-conditions: silent tape or subtitles (mundane or anxiety-producing)
-in all takes woman appeared anxious
Gilber et al: expected results and results
-expect if anxiety producing topic, situational attribution
-expecy if mundane topic, dispositonal attributions
-results were more dispositional attributions w/ mundane than anxiety-producing topic
Gilber et al: revision of expt
-3 groups of subjects had same conditions BUT also asked to memorize list of words (they were topics she was talking about) while watching (use cog resources)
Gilber et al.: revision expt results
-high dispositional attributions regardless of anxiety-producing subtitles
-conclusion was FAE is automatic and can only correct if have mental resources to correct
Spotlight Affect
-tendency to overestimate the extent to which our actions and appearance are salient to others
-think evaluated to greater extent than really are
Actor-Observer Difference
-tendency to see others' behavior as dispositional caused but focusing more on the role of situational factors when explaining one's own behavior
actor-observer difference and the role of perceptual salience and information availability
-notice our own situation more than our own behavior
-swayed by info that is most salient and noticable
-actors have more info about themselves than observers
Self-Serving attributions
-explanations for ones' successes that credit internal, dispositional factors and explanations for one's failures that blame external, situational factors
Why make self-serving attributions?
-maintain self-esteem
-want ppl to think well of us and to admire us
-to deal w/ threats to self-esteem
Defensive Attributions
-explanations for behavior that avoid feelings of vulnerability and mortality
-one form is unrealistic optimism
-one form is belief in just world
Unrealistic Optimism
-people think that good things are more likely to happen to them than their peers and the bad things are less likely to happen to them than to their peers
Belief in Just World
-people assume that bad things happen to bad people and that good things happen to good people
Descirbe cultural effects on FAE
-pp in individualist cultures (west) prefer dispositional attributions
-collectivist cultures (east) prefer situational attributions; more aware of how the situation affects behavior and more likely to take situational effects into account
Correspondance Bia
-tendency to infer that ppl's behavior corresponds to (matches) their disposition (personality)
-appears in many cultures
Reasons our impressions are sometimes wrong
-mental shortcuts we use when forming social judgments (FAE)
-use of schemas
Conformation Bias
-tend to ask ppl questions about themselves that are biased by our initial expectations
-these leading question cause them to give answers that confirm our expectation
Mechanism that produce self-fufilling prophecy effect
-providing opportunities: conformational bias
-mathcing reactions (elicite rxn, reinforce expectation)
Snyder, Tanke, and Berscheid: matching reaction
-man and woman had convo through intercom
-man had either pretty or ugly picture of woman (woman had no pic)
-have convo than ask man how woman was
Snyder, Tanke, and Berscheid: results
-men were warmer to "attactive" woman
-rated "attractive" woman higher (friendlier, sociable)
-judges rated "attractive" woman higher B/C she was nicer since man was nicer to her (elcited rxn)
Why don't ppl understand the role they play in affecting others' behavior?
-covariation problem (dont' see covariation bwt out behavior and other's behavior b/c never see person in our situation
-self-regulating pattern (efforts to manage our impressions take up cog resources so we don't pay attention to other ppl)
the content of self; that is, our knowledge about who we are
the act of thinking about ourselves
3 important functions of the self
-organizational function (self-schema)
-self-reference effect
-self-regulation (regulating ppl's behavior, choices, and plans for the future)
-mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about themselves and that influence what they notice, think about, and remember about themselves
self-reference effect
the tendency for people to remember information better if they relate it to themselves
self-regulatory resource model
-self-control is a limited resource, kind of like a muscle that gets tired w/ frequent use but then rebounds in strength
-limited amount of energy to devote to self-control and that spending it on one task limits the amount that can be spent on another task
When does self-control fail?
-when under stress
-at night
Western definition of self
-independent view of the self
-define oneself in terms of one's own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions and not in terms of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others
-seperate from others
-value independence and uniqueness
Eastern definition of self
-interdependent view of the self
-define oneself in terms of one's relationships to other people and recognizing that one's behavior is often determined by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others
-connectedness and interdependency
Relational interdependence
-focus more one their close relationships, such as how they feel about their spouse or their child
-characteristic of women
Collective interdependence
-focus on their memberships in larger groups
-characteristic of men
How do men and women differ in these dimensions
-girls are more likely to develop intimate friendships, cooperate w/ others, and focus attention on social relationships
-boys are more likely to focus on their group members
Self-Awareness Theory
-idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values
-become self-conscious in the sense that we become objective, judgmental observers of ourselves
Implications of self-awareness theory
-aversive when it reminds people of their shortcomings, and under these circumstances people try to avoid it
-many forms of religious expression and spirituality are effective means of avoiding self-focus
Casual Theories
-theories about the cause of one's own feelings and behaviors
-often we learn such theories from our culture
How are casual theories not always right?
-schemas and theories are not always correct and thus can lead to incorrect judgments about the cause of our actions
-factors that seem like they shouldn't influence ppl's judgments (factors not part of casual theories) do have an effect
-vice versa
Self-evaluation motivation
-desire to evaluate (assessment) our opinions and abilities
Self-validation motivation
-desire to feel good about ourselves
Routes to self-understanding
-observing own behavior
-observing other people (social comparison)
Reasons-generated attitude change
-attitude change resulting from thinking about the reasons for one's attitudes
-ppl assume their attitudes match the reasons that are plausible and easy to verbalize
-sometimes these reasons imply a different attitude from the one they had before
-attitudes ppl express immediately after analyzing reasons should not be trusted too much
Self-Perception Theory
-when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs
Intrinsic Motivation
-desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting, not because of external rewards or pressures
Extrinsic Motivation
-desire to engage in an activity b/c of external rewards or pressures, not b/c we enjoy the task or find it interesting
Overjustification Effect
-unfortunate outcome that replacing intrinsic motivation w/ extrinsic motivation makes people lose interest in the activity they initially enjoyed
-tendency of ppl to view their behavior as caused by extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons
Avoiding overjustification
-rewards will undermine interest only if interest was high initially
-type of reward makes difference (performance-contigent is better)
Task-Contigent Rewards
-given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done
Performance-Contigent Rewards
-based on how well we perform task
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
-idea that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it
-because our physical states are difficult to label on their own, we use information in the situation to help us make an attribution about why we feel aroused
Describe emotions according to the two-factor theory of emotion
-emotions are somewhat arbitary, depending on what the most plausible explanation for their arousal happens to be
-emotions can be the result of a self-perception process
Describe misattribution of arousal
-the process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do
-many everyday situations present more than one plausible cause for our arousal making it difficult to identify how much of the arousal is due to one source or another
Cognitive Appraisal Theories of Emotion
-theories holding that emotions result from people's interpertations and explanations of events, even in the absence of physiological arousal
Two kinds of appraisals are espcially important
1. do you think the event has good or bad implications for you
2. how do explain what caused the event
Difference bwt cognitive appraisl and two factor theory
-cognitive appraisal: arousal does not always come first; the cognitive appraisals alone are a sufficient cause of emotional reactions
Social Comparison Theory
-the idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people
Two questions social comparison theory revolves around?
1. when do you engage in social comparison
2. with whom do you choose to compare yourself
Upward Social Comparison
comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are on a particular trait or ability
Downward Social Comparison
comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are on a particular trait or ability
Ability target, evaluation goal
-compare w/ ppl who have similiar related attributes
Opinion target, evaluation goal
-similiar attributes & agrees w/ you : don't learn about validity of opinion
-similiar attributes & disagrees w/ you: informative
-disimiliar, agrees: information
-disimiliar, disagress: doesn't tell you much
Ability target, validation goal
-compare w/ people who have inferior related attributes
-trick self to think they're not as bad or inferior as really are
-then exaggerate related attributes of others
Opinion target, validation goal
-compare w/ ppl who have similiar related attributes
Impression Management
the atttempt by ppl to get others to see them as they want to be seen
-process whereby ppl flatter, praise, and generally try to make themselves likable to another person, often of higher status
-people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task, they can avoid blaming themselve
2 way self-handicap
-create obstacles that reduce the likelihood they will suceed on a task to that if they fail, can blame it on these obstacles rather than on lack of abilities
-devise ready made excuses in case they fail
Images people project
-most attractive image they can get away with
-not always the most attractive image possible b/c punishment for deception
Promblems with projecting image?
-may make mistake about likelihood of getting away w/ exaggerated claim
-members of 2 audiences may share info
-audience may not believe true claim
-most direct, least subtle way of managing impression
-general describe self positively
-often ppl are skeptical
What affects self-description
-desired goal (competence vs modesty)
-audience (authorities vs peers)
-audience's awareness of power (high vs low)
-audiences abilite to discredit claim
Mix strategy
-positive on things audience cares about but modest in other dimensions
Schlender: self-description
-private condition: competent self-description regardless of prior performance
-Public condition: competent self-description only when pror performance was successful
-harder to discredit claim, more likely we are to exaggerate cause we can get away w/ it
How we tell audiences ability to discredit claim
-Test the Waters: how much does other person know already
-Revealing Deficiencies
-secure, self-confident
-sell self short (don't brag even if something to brag about)
-have to have something to be modest about that audience knows
-can have false modesty (manipulation tactic)
Mentioning Obstacles
-enhance sucess
-indicate obstacles assoc. w/ positive things
-works w/ attribution theory
-only works if audienc has postive view of you already
-i.e. talk with people who brag, you tend to brag more
-effective b/c facilitates interaction w/ person
Fufilling stereotypes
-if fufill stereotype, support their expectation so easier to interact
stereotype threat
-fear of confirming stereotype makes you so anxious you actually do worse and confirm stereotype
-revealing secrets won't know otherwise
-usually something negative
-moderate disclosure = max liking
-disclosure depend on length of relationship
Dangers of self-disclosure
-negative content of disclosure
-pressure for reciprocity
Describe how negative life events can affect health outcomes
-ppl experciencing alot of change or upheaval are more likely to feel anxious and get sick
-more racism minority group experiences, worse their health
-majority group who express the most racist attitudes also experience diminished health
-negative life experiences are bad for our health
Describe the relationship bwt perceived stress and health and the role of the immune system in this relationship
-stress caused by negative interpertations of events can directly affect our immune system, making us susceptible to disease
-even relatively mild stressors can lead to a supression of the immune system
Describe the role of perceived control and the lack of control on health outcomes
-high sense of perceived control is associated w/ good physical and mental health
perceived control
belief that we can influence our environment in ways that determine whether we experience positive or negative outcomes
Limits of perceived control and health
-relationship bwt perceived control and distress is more important to members of western cultures than memebers of asian culture
-even in western culture there is a danger of exaggerating the relationship bwt perceived control and health
Benefits of perceived control and health
-esp for ppl living w/ serious illness
-more ppl feel they have can control the consequences of their disease, the better adjusted they are, even if the know they can not control the eventual course of their illness
-belief that one's ability to carry out specific actions that produce desired outcomes
-confidence that out can perform the specific behaviors in question
-level of self-efficacy has been found to predict number of important health behaviors (llikelihood will quit smoking, lose weight, lower chlosterol, exercise regularly)
-others can help us gain self-efficacy
2 way self-efficacy helps
-influences our persistence and effort at a task
-operates as a kind of self-fulfulling prophecy
Learned Helplessness
-state of pessimism that results from attributing a negative event to stable, internal, and global factors
-making these attribution for negative events leads to hopelessness, depression, reduced effort, and difficulty in learning
-related to attribution theory (consider perceptions instead of causes)
Stable attribution
-even is caused by factors that will not change over time (i.e. intelligence)
Internal Attribution
-event is caused by things about you as opposed to facotrs that are external
Global attribution
-event is caused by factors that apply in a large number of situations
Fight or flight repsonse
-respond to stress either by attacking the souce of the stress or fleeing from it
-characteristic of men
Tend-and-Befriend Response
-responding the stress w/ nurturant activities designed to protect oneself and one's offspring (tending) and creating social networks that provide protection from threats (befriending)
-evolved in females
Social Support
-perception that others are responsive and receptive to one's needs
-have someone to lean on deal better w/ life's problems and show improved health
-seen in other cultures
buffering hypothesis
-we need social support only when we are under stress b/c it protects us against the detrimental effects of this stress
How does social support help
-help us interpret an event as less stressful than we otherwise would
-even if we do interpret event as stressful, social support can help us cope
Type A personality
-typically competitive, impatient, hostile, and control-oriented when confronting a problem
-related to heart disease
-usually males, have type A parents, and live in urban rather than rural area
Type B personality
-typically patient, relaxed, and noncompetitive when confronting a challenge
Describe how opein up to others may impact health
-supressing negative thoughts lead to preoccupation b/c as try not think about it end up thinking about it more
-sharing can help gain a better understanding and thus forward moving in life
"loss frame"
-use when trying to get ppl to detect the presence of a disease
-emphasize what they have to lose by avoiding this behavior
-focus our attention on the possibility that we migh have a problem that can be dealt w/ by performing detection behaviors
"gain frame"
-when trying to get ppl to behave in positive ways that will prevent disease
-emphasize what they have to gain by engaging in these behaviors
-focus our attention on the fact that we are in a good state of health and that to stay that way, we should perform preventive behaviors
Describe how cognitive dissonance can be used to alter health related behaviors
-effective way of changing ppl's behaviors is to challenge their self-esteem in such a way that it becomes to their advantage, psychologically, to act differently
-one of the best ways to get ppl to change their behaviors is to change their interpretation of the situation