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66 Cards in this Set

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Refers to adopting the culture of a group different from the one in which a person was originally raised.
affirmative action
Refers to a broad range of policies and practices in the workplace and educational institutions to promote equal opportunity as well as diversity. Affirmative action is an attempt to compensate for the effects of past discrimination and prevent current discrimination against women and racial and ethnic minorities.
antimiscegenation laws
Nineteen states had antimiscegenation laws banning interracial marriage until 1967, when the Supreme Court (in Loving v. Virginia) declared these laws unconstitutional
The process by which formerly distinct and separate groups merge and become integrated as one. Assimilation is sometimes referred to as the “melting pot,” whereby different groups come together and contribute equally to a new, common culture.
aversive racism
Represents a subtle, often unintentional form of prejudice exhibited by many well-intentioned white Americans who possess strong egalitarian values and who view themselves as nonprejudiced.
Occurs when a racial or ethnic group from one society takes over and dominates the racial or ethnic group(s) of another society.
de facto segregation
Segregation refers to the physical separation of two groups in residence, workplace, and social functions. Segregation can be de jure (Latin meaning “by law”) or de facto (“in fact”).
de jure segregation
Segregation refers to the physical separation of two groups in residence, workplace, and social functions. Segregation can be de jure (Latin meaning “by law”) or de facto (“in fact”).
Refers to actions or practices that result in differential treatment of categories of individuals.
Refers to a shared cultural heritage or nationality.
hate crime
An unlawful act of violence motivated by prejudice or bias.
individual discrimination
Occurs when individuals treat other individuals unfairly or unequally because of their group membership. Individual discrimination can be overt or adaptive
institutional discrimination
Occurs when normal operations and procedures of social institutions result in unequal treatment of and opportunities for minorities.
Jim Crow laws
Between 1890 and 1910 a series of U.S. laws, which came to be known as Jim Crow laws, were enacted to separate blacks from whites by prohibiting blacks from using “white” buses, hotels, restaurants, and drinking fountains.
modern racism
Like aversive racism, modern racism involves the rejection of traditional racist beliefs, but a modern racist displaces negative racial feelings onto more abstract social and political issues.
multicultural education
In schools across the nation multicultural education, which encompasses a broad range of programs and strategies, works to dispel myths, stereotypes, and ignorance about minorities, to promote tolerance and appreciation of diversity, and to include minority groups in the school curriculum.
naturalized citizen
Immigrants who applied and met the requirements for U.S. citizenship.
one-drop rule
To increase the size of the slave population, the one-drop rule appeared, which specified that even one drop of “Negroid” blood defined a person as black and therefore eligible for slavery.
Refers to a state in which racial and ethnic groups maintain their distinctness but respect each other and have equal access to social resources.
Refers to negative attitudes and feelings toward or about an entire category of people. Prejudice can be directed toward individuals of a particular religion, sexual orientation, political affiliation, age, social class, sex, race, or ethnicity.
population transfer
Expulsion or population transfer occurs when a dominant group forces a subordinate group to leave the country or to live only in designated areas of the country.
primary assimilation
Occurs when members of different groups are integrated in personal, intimate associations, as with friends, family, and spouses.
The concept of race refers to a category of people who are believed to share distinct physical characteristics that are deemed socially significant.
The belief that race accounts for differences in human character and ability and that a particular race is superior to others.
secondary assimilation
Assimilation can be of two types: secondary and primary. Secondary assimilation occurs when different groups become integrated in public areas and in social institutions, such as neighborhoods, schools, the workplace, and in government.
Refers to the physical separation of two groups in residence, workplace, and social functions. Segregation can be de jure (Latin meaning “by law”) or de facto (“in fact”).
Exaggerations or generalizations about the characteristics and behavior of a particular group.
affirmative action
Refers to a broad range of policies and practices in the workplace and educational institutions to promote equal opportunity as well as diversity in the workplace and on campuses.
The blending of both masculine and feminine characteristics.
comparable worth
Refers to the belief that individuals in occupations, even in different occupations, should be paid equally if the job requires “comparable” levels of education, training, and responsibility.
cultural sexism
Refers to the ways the culture of society—its norms, values, beliefs, and symbols—perpetuates the subordination of an individual or group because of the sex classification of that individual or group.
devaluation hypothesis
It argues that women are paid less because the work they perform is socially defined as less valuable than the work performed by men.
Occurs when a person is a member of two or more minority groups.
Work that involves caring, negotiating, and empathizing with people, which is rarely specified in job descriptions or performance evaluations.
Nurturing and emotionally supportive roles.
The belief that women and men should have equal rights and responsibilities.
Refers to the social definitions and expectations associated with being female or male.
"The hard lines that once helped to define masculine [and feminine] identity are blurring. Women serve in the military, play pro basketball, run corporations and govern. Men diet, undergo cosmetic surgery, bare their souls in support groups and cook.” (Fitzpatrick 2000)
An often invisible barrier that prevents women and other minorities from moving into top corporate positions.
Argues that female-male pay differences are a function of differences in women’s and men’s levels of education, skills, training, and work experience.
Task-oriented roles.
The concentration of women in certain occupations and men in other occupations.
Women are still heavily represented in low-prestige, low-wage pink-collar jobs that offer few benefits.
Refers to one’s biological identity.
The belief that innate psychological, behavioral, and/or intellectual differences exist between women and men and that these differences connote the superiority of one group and the inferiority of the other.
sexual harassment
Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature when this conduct affects an individual’s employment, interferes with an individual’s work performance, or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment.
structural sexism
Also known as institutional sexism, refers to the ways the organization of society, and specifically its institutions, subordinate individuals and groups based on their sex classification.
Cold War
The state of political tension and military rivalry that existed between the United States and the former Soviet Union, provided justification for large expenditures on military preparedness.
domestic terrorism
Sometimes called insurgent terrorism, is exemplified by the 1995 truck bombing of a nine-story federal office building in Oklahoma City, resulting in 168 deaths and the injury of more than 200 people.
"An apparatus of power, a set of institutions—the central government, the armed forces, the regulatory and police agencies—whose most important functions involve the use of force, the control of territory and the maintenance of internal order” (Porter 1994, pp. 5– 6).
The premeditated use, or threatened use, of violence by an individual or group to gain a political or social objective. Terrorism may be used to publicize a cause, promote an ideology, achieve religious freedom, attain the release of a political prisoner, or rebel against a government.
transnational terrorism
Occurs when a terrorist act in one country involves victims, targets, institutions, governments, or citizens of another country.
The most violent form of conflict, refers to organized armed violence aimed at a social group in pursuit of an objective.
weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
Include chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons.
absolute poverty
The lack of resources that leads to hunger and physical deprivation is known as absolute poverty
Owners of the means of production. The bourgeoisie accumulate wealth as they profit from the labor of the proletariat, who earn wages far below the earnings of the bourgeoisie.
corporate welfare
Laws and policies that favor the rich—sometimes referred to as wealthfare or corporate welfare—include low-interest government loans to failing businesses, special subsidies and tax breaks to corporations, and other laws and policies that benefit corporations and the wealthy.
culture of poverty
According to Lewis, the culture of poverty is characterized by female-centered households, an emphasis on gratification in the present rather than in the future, and a relative lack of participation in society’s major institutions.
feminization of poverty
Women are more likely than men to live below the poverty line.
human capital
Refers to the skills, knowledge, and capabilities of the individual. Investments in human capital involve programs and policies that provide adequate nutrition, sanitation, housing, health care (including reproductive health care and family planning), and educational and job training.
intergenerational poverty
Poverty that is transmitted from one generation to the next.
Poverty has traditionally been defined as the lack of resources necessary for material well-being—most important, food and water, but also housing, land, and health care.
public housing
Initiated in 1937, provides federally subsidized housing that is owned and operated by local public housing authorities (PHAs).
relative poverty
Refers to a deficiency in material and economic resources compared with some other population.
Section 8 housing
Rather than building new housing units for low-income families, Section 8 housing relies on existing housing. With Section 8 housing federal rent subsidies are provided either to tenants (in the form of certificates and vouchers) or to private landlords. Section 8 housing and other private project-based housing attempt to disperse low-income families throughout the community.
People living in persistent poverty.
alternative certification programs
More than half of the states have adopted alternative certification programs, whereby college graduates with degrees in fields other than education can become certified if they have “life experience” in industry, the military, or other relevant jobs.
bilingual education
To help American children who do not speak English as their native language, some educators advocate bilingual education—teaching children in both English and their non-English native language.
In addition, to conflict theorists education serves as a mechanism for cultural imperialism, or the indoctrination into the dominant culture of a society.
distance learning
Distance learning separates, by time or place, the teacher from the student. They are, however, linked by some communication technology: videoconferencing, satellite, computer, audiotape or videotape, real-time chat room, closed-circuit television, electronic mail, or the like.
Head Start
In 1965 Project Head Start began to help preschool children from the most disadvantaged homes. Head Start provides an integrated program of health care, parental involvement, education, and social services
integration hypothesis
Coleman and colleagues emphasized that the only way to achieve quality education for all racial groups was to desegregate the schools. This recommendation, known as the integration hypothesis, advocated busing to achieve racial balance.
multicultural education
Education that includes all racial and ethnic groups in the school curriculum—promotes awareness and appreciation for cultural diversity.
school vouchers
Tax credits that are transferred to the public or private school that parents select for their child.
self-fulfilling prophecy
The self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when people act in a manner consistent with the expectations of others.
social promotion
The passing of students from grade to grade even if they are failing.
t otal immersion
n order to facilitate bilingual education, many school systems across the nation have implemented a recently developed program called total immersion. In this program elementary students in particular receive literacy and communication instruction totally in Spanish, for example, thus enabling students to communicate with one another in both languages in and out of the classroom.