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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Basic Social Movement Model
Social disorganization-->individual frustration-->aggression/extermism
Mass Society Theory
Social Breakdown-->individual alienation-->extermism
-lose sight of "proper" actions
-immediate/direct response
Relative Deprivation Theories
Perception of RD-->Discontent-->Violence
Criticisms of Traditional Theories
-Assume uniformity of action in response to stimuli
-most alienated least likely to get involved
Resource Movilization Theory
Post WWII Social Movements:
Not due to rise in discontent, but rise of available resources
RM Theory: "Structural Facilitators"
-increasing affluene, pool of student activisits, pro./managerial jobs/instit. funding
"Free Rider Problem"
-assumption of RM theory
-Individuals won't act togeter for the common good
Public good
Any good, such that if one pesron in the group consumes it, it cannot be withheld from others (clean air, equality, education)
Selective Incentives
-Individual, non-divisible goods
-can't get unless you join in
-(Sanctions, rewards)
Core Assumptions of RM Theory
Exernal Support
Professional SMOS
-Run by professional staff and leaders
-small/nonexistent membership base
-resources from elite groups
-professional entrepreneurs define, create and manipulate grievances
-Ex. Siera Club, NOW, Planned Parenthood
Criticisms of RM Theory
-over-emphasis on external support
-under-emphasis on power/ablity of mass base
-optimistic view of political organization (Iron Law)
Iron Law of Oligarchy
Thesis: Natural tendency for organizations to develop oligarchical leadersip and conservative goals

1. Distance between staff and members-->leaders can follow own interests
2. Concern with organizational survival leads to conservative goals and tactics
Civil Rights Movement: Political Opportunity Structure
-decreased power of Southern elites
-relaxatioin of social control in South
-Increased political influence in North
-Cold War Politics
-Communists cite racism in US as fault of Capitalism
-Urbanization: development of key community institutions
Civil Rights:
Cognitive Liberation
-Improved political conditions, community institutions
-"The system" loses legitimacy
-assertion of "rights"
-new sense of efficacy
Civil Rights
Local Movement Centers
-direct action organizations
-grassroots financing
-weekly mass meetings
-nonviolent direct action
The Sit-In Movement
-Key to rapid spread: Church-student networds
-student leadership
-concentration of black colleges
-mobilization via churches/local movement centers
Traditionalists V. Black Power
-as tactics of mvt. groups become more radical, elite organizations (NAACP, etc.) seen as only legitimate organizations-->outside support, funding of these more traditional groups
"Radical Flank" Effect
Funding channeled towards more moderate oganizations

-resources to less threatening mvt. groups
"Violence Thesis"
Media exposes police, natl. guard violence towards black protesters-->public willingness to intervene

*Idea that protesters intentionally provoke violence to manipulate this dynamic
Birmingham Campaign (1963)

Violence Thesis vs. Strategic Disruption
-Extensive planning: use of economic/consumer power, plan for extended confrontation
-Peaceful boycott-->more disruptive activities (picketing, etc.)
-Media attn. will provoke violence and sympathy
-build "social drama" that can't be ignored by local power structure or media
Role of 3rd Parties in Civil Rights Movement
1. Media: coverage once mvt. generates social disorder
2. Fed Govt: Intervenes in negotiating process

**Only help movement in response to social disorder caused by movement
Cycles of protest
Periods of generalized disorder and heightened conflict across the social system
Components of cycles of protest
Rapid diffusion of collective action
-participants people who are not usually thought of as likely to protest
-Different sectors of society
Basic Thesis: Cycles of protest
Political changes position "early risers" to take advantage of new opportunities
"Demonstration Effect"
-successful protest signals vulnerability and responsiveness of authorities/allies
-successful protest broadcasts effecive forms of collective action
Cultural Diffusion and adaptation
-"Early risers" provoke breakdown in political system
-"Early risers" generate cultural or cognitive signals
Decline of Insurgency
1. Protest to politics
2. Northern Strategy and Black Power
3. Backlash and Repression
Civil Rights Act of 1964
-Racial discrimination in public places illegal
-Equal employment opportunities
-No racial discrimination in federally-funded projects
-Uniform standards for voting rights
- Allows for prosecution of specific states that limit voting rights
Voting Rights Act of 1965
-Fed. Govt. can oversee voter registration and elections
-Fed. govt. can register voters refused by states
-No literacy tests; expanded rights for non-English speaking Americans
*Many feel goals have been met
Black Power/Naitonalism
-black self sufficiency, separatism
-Mass unrest, riots, guerilla activity
-Violence legitimized as tactic
Black Panther Party (1966)
Initial goal: Patrol neighborhoods, watch police treatment of blacks
-develop strong black-controlled institutions
-education ctrs, food dist.
-work with white activists
Black Panter Protest that helps gain attention
Law against carrying weapons in public-->seen as suppression of black power
-Protest-->media coverage
Backlash and Repression
-Attempts to infiltrate/sabotage riots

-Panthers blamed for riots

-Govt. Repression: raids, murders, arrests
Political Opportunity Structure:
Black Power
-Access to participation
-Unstable political/electoral alignments
-Influential allies
-Conflicts among elites
Initiator Movements vs. Other movements
Initiator: depend on POS
Other Mvts: take advantage of opportunities opened up by initiator movements

-Ruling class domination through ideology, through shaping of popular consent
-engineering of mass consent to the established order
-Those who rule dominant institutions secure power through active social control and by impressing their definitions of the situation onto other people
SDS leaders
-No media certification of celebrity leader
End of SDS
-Radical flank
Protest Cycle Theory--Women's Movement
Spin off of Civil Rights Movement
-blacks open door for protest
-Wmn view as own civil rts mvt
Women's Mvt: link to history
Continuation of earlier struggle--suffrage
National Women's Party
-Picket outside white house
-hunger strikes
Post-Suffrage ideas of women
Will vote as coherent bloc--women use as coherent vote
-this doesn't happen
-Equality of rights under law
-women as offering something new v. women being equal to men
-Not ratified
Abeyance Structure
Organizational pattern characterized by high LONGEVITY of attachment; intense levels of individual COMMITMENT to movement goals and tactics; igh CENTRALIZATION thatn ensures a relatively advanced level of specialized skills among core acivist; and a rich political CULTURE that promotes continued involvement in the movement"
Goals of Women's Movement
ERA--lobbying, letter writing
NWP demographics
upper middle class white women
Constraints of women's movement
Upper middle class white women


Had organization been more diverse, women's mvt. that followed in 1960s would have been more diverse
Effects of careers on women in social movements
Work outside home-->structurally available for mvt. recruitment

Skills, contacts, etc. to help with organization of movements
Women: Change in Consciousness
-Rejection of biological explanations for women's roles
-inherent gender equality
-recognition of gender discrimination

*Makes women available for movements: Majority accept idea of women having new societal role
"Cooptable Network"
Network of like-minded people whose background, experiences, location in social structure make them receptive to new ideas of incipient movement--Freeman
Women's Movement as "political insider"
Movement develops outside political system-->organization, etc.-->becomes part of political system
Feminist action: 1980s
organizational dissolution
-few struggling local groups, handful natl. orgs.
-no grassroots
-Reagan anti-fem
-New Right
-Feminist action at local level (mvt. not dead)
Collective Identity
Shared definition of a group that derives from members' common interests, experiences and solidarity

*Wmns Mvt: continued vitality of collective identity; continuity
Older Branch of Feminism
Liberal Feminism

-reform through political advocacy, interest groups
-Formal SMOS
-Personal liberty, individual rights, equality
-Civil Rights Movement as inspiration
-still considered radical
Younger Branch of Feminism
-Smaller, decentralized organizations
-build fem. comm. at local level
-some separatists