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50 Cards in this Set

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Government
The governing body of a country with the power to make descisions for people.
What is our political system?
Our political system consists of the Prime Ministerand the Cabinet, which makes up the Executive Branch, the Legislative Branch, including the House of Commons and Senate, and the Judicial Branch, which included Canada`s court system.
Canadian Constitution
The Constitution of Canada is the signed law of Canada that describes the governance of Canada.
What is the Charter of Rights and Freedoms?
The Charter of Rights and Freedoms is signed in to the Constitution and it lays out every right and freedom to every person, whether a citizen or non-citizen, has in Canada.
What is the Cabinet?
The Cabinet are the people who are responsible for the day to day activities for government agencies, or portfolio`s, such as Defence, Finance, and Justice. The Prime Minister chooses Cabinet Ministers to head these agencies.
Legislative Branch
The part of government that decides and creates laws.
How is a law passed?
When a law is proposed, it must go through the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. When it does, it goes through the House of Commons. The House of Commons reviews the bill, can make ammendments to the bill, and if the bill is accepted, it goes to the Senate, the bill is studied, more ammendments can be made, and if passed, will go to the Governor General of Canada to sign for Royal Ascent. Once signed, it becomes Canadian Law. If a bill is rejected by either the House or the Senate, the bill is permanently thrown out.
How is the Prime Minister elected?
In the Federal election, in order to elected Prime Minister, that person would need to be the elected leader of a party, that person would also need to be elected a member of parliament, and then have his political party hold the most seats in Parliament.
Members of Parliament
People who are elected in the Federal Election to represent their constituents in the House of Commons. MPs are elected in local political election zones, or ridings, and the person with the most votes in a riding will become a Member of Parliament representing that region.
Constituents
A person who lives in a riding and is represented the MP elected from that Riding.
The Senate
The members of Canada`s Senate are called Senators. There are 50 Senators appointed by the Governor General, on advice of the Prime Minister. Senators can hold their office until they`re 75 years old. Snators represent the regions they are chosen from.
House of Commons
Members of Parliament make up the House of Commons, like the Senate, they review the bills in the legislature and make decisions on them. Bills go through the House of Commons first. MPs are elected out of ridings, represented their constituents.
Who is the Governor General?
The Governor General of Canada is Her Majesty the Queen`s representative in Canada.
What is the Judicial system?
The judicial system is the part of government that applies and interprets law into action. It included all courts in Canada. The Supreme Court of Canada has the final word on ever legal question in the country
Supreme Court of Canada
The highest court in Canada. The Supreme Court has the final word on all legal questions in Canada, including those for the rules on making and applying laws.
What is the Federal Accountability Act?
An Act passed in 2006 following a scandal in which government officials created a secret fund in order to raise and pocket the money for themselves. The Act calls for responsible and accountable spending by the government.
The Media
The Media are those involved in newspapers, radio, magazines, television news, the Internet and billboards. These people deliver information and messages to very large audiences across the country quickly.
Who are Lobbyists?
Lobbyists are people hired by a group to influence government officals and MPs. Lobbyists are registered with a Commisioner of Lobbyists so that people in Canada know who they are, who they represent, and who they follow. Lobbyists voice the views of groups in issues that can affect their members, services, and products.
Bias
An opinion that is based on unchallenged assumptions.
Youth Criminal Justice Act
An Act passed in 2004 that deals with young offenders of the law aged 12-17. the Act prohibits adult sentences for those 12-14, and those over 14 can recieve adult sentences. The names of offenders cannot be released under the Act.
Justice system
The institutions and procedures for applying and interpreting laws for a society.
Fair and Equitability
The rules that govern and apply to everyone, taking in to account individual needs and circumstances.
Vailidity
Realiability on a critical assessment of facts, source, or bias.
Criminal Record
A permanent crime record created by the government after an adult and sometimes a youth commits a crime.
Community Service
Help for the community, such as picking up trash in a park or painting rooms in buildings.
What happened before YCJA?
Before the YCJA, youths who broke the law could recieve charges and be sent to court but, however, kids did not face sentences for a long time, since they dealt with many cases.
What is rehabilitation?
An insitution that works to instill positive behaviours and kick bad attitudes.
Reintegration
If rehabilitation is succesful, that person can be made part of society again.
How does the Court system work?
A major case in a court consists of a defence, who are thosed charged with a crime, the prosecution, those who are charging them, the jury, who make the decision if they are guilty or not, and the judges, who decide their sentences.
Jury Duty
Anyone 18 years or older and a citizen of Canada can be chosen for jury duty. Jobs and employments are required by law to give time off for workers going for jury duty. Unless stopped by something, people are required to attend. Jurors take an oath to use the evidence to reach a verdict.
Advocacy Groups
There are two major advocacy groups, or people who work independently of government and solve the underlying reasons for a crime. They provide public education for laws in Canada and information about the YCJA.
Rights protected under the Charter
The rights and freedoms protected under the Charter include our Fundamental Freedoms, our Democratic rights, and our Mobility rights, which included our right to go anywhere in Canada.
Fundamental Freedoms
The freedom to express our own opinions and to choose our own religion, as well as peaceful protets in groups.
Democratic Rights
The right to vote for MPs in Parliment in federal elections as well as provincial elections.
Mobility Rights
The rights that include the right to live and move freely throughout Canada, as well as the right to stay in that area.
Legal Rights
The right to be free of serch and seizure without reasons backed by law, free of imprisonment, backed by law and evidence. Also included the right to a quick and fair trial.
Equality Rights
The right to be free of race, ethnic origon, religion, gender, age or physical disability discrimination.
Indian Act of 1876
An act passed by the government in 1876 that applied to all people of ``Indian descent.`` The act affirmed the collective rights of First Nations even though it had originally intended to assimilate them. The Act created officials that governed the Indian reserves without their consent.
Ethnocentrism
The belief and thoughts that one persons race or culture is superior to all others.
What was the Official Languages Act of 1969?
An act passed by the Canadian government under Prime Minister Trudeau thats recognized the French and English languages as the official languages of Canada, which was also included in the British North America Act of 1867.
Constitution Act, 1982
An Act introduced by P.M. Pierre Trudeau that included several ammendments to the constitution they had been using at that time. The new constitution included the Charter of Rights and Freedoms and affirmed French and English as the official languages of Canada.
Who are the First Nations of Canada?
The people, as recognized under the Charter, who were the first people in Canada before the British and French arrived. These people are the First Nations clans, the Metis, and the Inuit.
Sovereignity
Supreme independence over a specific area, including the right to a self-government.
First Nations reserves
Area and sections of land that are set aside by the government and are given to the First Nations specifically for Firrst Nations use
Annunity
A anual payment that First Nations make to the government, as defined the numbered treaties and other laws.
Residential Schools in 1879
Laws passed in 1879 that established residential schools that took First Nations from their home, and introduced them to English culture and taught them their history and values.
Economic Adjustments to First Nations living
In the 1930s, there were many adjustments to
Metis Scrip
Documents given to Metis people by the government that can be exchanged for land from the government.
Offical Language Minority Rights
People living as an official language minority, meaning they speak a language that is not the majority language in their community, have the righ t protected under the Charter to be educated in a school that teaches their language. Eg. French language school in Alberta.
Anglophones and Francophone
An Anglophone is a person who's first language they learned was English. A
Francophone is a person who's first language they learned was French.