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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Southern social change
Increased dependence on slavery
Development of commerce
Larger middle class everywhere, especially in the north
Industrialization
Poverty and immigrants, who formed the frontier
The American city - cons
very unhealthy- waste, plumbing, sweres were gross
major epidemics
The American city - pros
(1) Jobs
(2) Opportunity for advancement
(3) Leisure stuff
(4) Labor Unions
The south
Distribution of wealth
(1) Aristocracy had most the wealth
(2) middle class - tradesmen, brokers, professionals
(3) working class - factories/craft/etc
Cult of domesticity
Women raised kids and men worked
Poverty
Immigrants!
Ireland and Germany
-treated poorly because of job competition
-Irish were Catholic
-violence, which resulted in municipal police
Rural life
no neighbors! family ties were strong.
Family and church was everything.
no transporation (other than water)
more substinence
Slavery
MOST PEOPLE DID NOT OWN SLAVES
-only 2% population owned 20+ slaves
Southern paternalism
-black people couldn't take care of themselves so slavery benefitted EVERYONE
Slaves
substinence poverty
Housed in one room cabins with their family
bad conditions
Imports were banned in 1808, so it was necessary to keep slaves alive.
Yeomen
whites who owned no slaves and farmed land with their families
Landless whites
Farmed as tenants, hired themselves out as laborers

Small chance for climbing social ladder
Free blacks
Freed from Revolutionary War

black codes: could not own guns, etc.
Suffered prejudiced
Many mulattos (many were relatively rich)
Frontier Living
The Louisiana Purchase was awaiting people.
US gov. encouraged it by selling cheap, loaning money, etc.
Squatters
ignored requirement to buy land and took a random piece by themselves
Ohio valley
grain production and grain farming
"The nation's bredbasket"
Fur trading on the frontier
Constantly moved west
Hunted beavers to extinction
The west
cattle ranchers
Miners
difficult life (climate ,NA)
Symbolized freedom and EQUALITY
Second Great Awakening
Early in the century
Formed in random places - revivals
Temperance societies
WOMEN were HUGE on reforms
Grew until the amendment in 1919
Other groups
Anti-gambling
Lotteries outlawed
Anti-prostitution
Penitentiaries
Asylums
Orphanages
Dorothea Dix
REHAB criminals rather than punish them
Helped mental prisoners
Shakers - an Utopian group
group from quakers that thought people neglected afterlives

gave equality to women

celibacy - numbers diminished
Mormons
Joseph Smith - Acceptance of polygamy
Left to Salt Lake region
Made the area from desert to farmable place
Women's Rights movement
Seneca Falls Convention - motivated by anti-slavery convention where Lucretia Mott and Stanton were rejected
Woman's suffrage
Susan B. Anthony
Horrace Mann
public education and started using books
THE BIGGIE- Abolition
In 1830s, only Quakers wanted to abolish slavory.

Great Awakening persuaded many.
Kinds of abolitionists
(1) Immediatists - emancipation immediately
(2) Moderates - slowly with southern cooperation
William Lloyd Garison
Immediatist who began The Liberator. Powerful righter that fueled debate. Antigonized the south and stirred up Congress.
Gag rule
Congress forbade discussion on the issue
(1836 - 1844)
The early abolitionists
Were black. They met in convention every year.
Frederick Douglass
Published The North Star. He was an escaped slave that published an autobiography
Harriet Tubman
Underground railroad to bring slaves to safety
Sojourner Truth
Campaigned for emancipation and women's rights. Good speaker