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11 Cards in this Set

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Behavior is determined by the motivation to pursue pleasure and avoid pain. Individuals act to maximize reward and minimize punishment.
Hedonism
A form of hedonish in which the pursuit of ? brings a person pleasure and therefore is the primary motivation for action. In this view the act of manipulation is both the means and the end in itself.
Power
This theory is derived from the cognitive theory, this view states that people mentally explore the possible reactions of others prior to making a decision to act.
Symbolic-Interaction Theory
(Sociological Theory)
This theory developed out of the symbolic-interaction theory, but focuses on actual interactions between persons. Behavior is determined by role obligations. Behaviors is rewarded and punished according to evaluations of role performance. Role conflict and role strain are other concepts examined in this theory.
Role Theory
(Sociological Theory)
Derived from the social learning theory. This theory contends that interactions between people must be mutually reinforcing. Individual seek to imitate "profitable" exchanges with others and seek to eliminate "nonprofitable" exchanges with others
Social Exchange Theory
In this theory two people will be more attracted to each other the more similar their evaluations of objects, in their common environment. A state of cognitive balance results when attitudes, values, interests, and beliefs are similar. If balanced state does not exist, then the individual will experience tension until the system is balanced again. Balance may occur by deciding to change one's attitude toward the other person or toward the object.
Balancing Theory
(Cognitive-Consistency Theory)
In this theory, Festinger states that two cognitions that are in disagreement produce tension within the individual until that person changes one of those cognitions. (The amount of tension experienced is a function of the degree of the dissonance. Dissonance can be reduced by changing a behavior, changing the environment, or adding new cognitive information that will "outweigh" one of the dissonant cognitions.)
Dissonance Theory
(Cognitive-Consistency Theory)
In this theory, Osgood and Tannenbaum describe their theory of ? as a condition when an individual holds two attitudes that are opposite, he or she will work to change both attitudes in an effort to achieve congruence between them.
Congruity Theory
(Cognitive-Consistency Theory)
After what 1954 court decision and movement did professional members begin to recognize and reference the need to attend to various cultural groups.
Brown vs. Kansas Board of Education and the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960's
Who is credited for introducing counseling and guidance in educational settings?
Jesse Davis
Who led the way for vocational guidance in community agencies?
Frank Parsons