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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Classical Conservatism
-17th century
-Edmund Burke developed values of classical conservatism based on French Revolution
-supports gov't but not tyrrany
-uninformed people do not vote
-hierarchical society chosen by limited electorate
-humanitarian leaders
-Law/order is important
Bourgeoisie and the proletariat
have and have-nots

rich bourg. exploit poor proletariat

proletariat rises up --> revolution (bourg. wouldn't voluntarily give up resources)
The Luddites
-early 19th century
-lead by Ned Ludd
-army of Redressers (destroy machines that replace them)
-gov't made it punishable by death
-beginning of opposition to capitalism
The Chartists
1838-1848
-People's Charter of 1838 outlined goals of mvmt (political/social reform)
-charters and petitions rejected --> threatened with strike
- Reform Acts (1897-1884)
-
Utopian Socialists
-socialism
-19th century
-Sir Thomas Moore ("Utopia")
-Robert Owen improved standard of living for workers
-modify classic liberalism --> more socialist
-Marxism
Communism
-18th century
-Karl Marx (radical socialism) wrote "Communist Manifesto"
-scientific socialism
-command economy
6 Goals of People's Charter of 1838
-Universal suffrage for all men over 21
-Equal-sized electoral districts
-Voting by secret ballot
-An end to the need for property qualifications for Parliament
-Pay for Members of Parliament
-Annual elections
Espionage Act of 1917
US federal law that prohibited attempt to interfere with military operations
punishable by death
Charles Schenk
Schenk vs. US case
printed and mailed military draftees saying they shouldn't go to war; didn't have freedom of speech
charged under espionage act
Sedition Act of 1918
extended espionage act
could not use speech/expression negatively with war
Eugene V. Debs
Spoke out against the war
Arrested 10 years in jail under Sedition Act
Renaissance
14-16th centuries
importance of individual and reliance on reason
paved way of Enlightenment
Thomas Hobbes
1588-1679
human nature is based on extreme individialism
people need security more than freedom
John Locke
individuals have right to use reason and logic to make their own decisions
"social contract": give up some rights for order and security
gov't should be accountable to people and have consent of governed
private property
Montesquieu
worth of individual and equality
accountability of gov't
separation of gov't powers
citizens must be aware of gov't
John Stuart Mill
only limitations on individual are to protect liberty of others
free speech
Aboriginal Influence on Liberalism
separation of powers
equal participation of people
rights and freedoms
Classical Liberalism
human rationality and embraces individualism
rule of law
limits on gov't
American Revolution
ideas of Locke
independance, constitution
French Revolution
implement liberal thought from Enlightenment
Declaration of Rights of Man
men are free and equal
rights are limited to protect others
freedom of speech
Adam Smith
Merchantilism
Wealth of Nations
Invisible Hand
Laissez-faire economics (capitalism)
What did Canada create after the Great Depression of 1930s?
social safety net
Suffrage definition
right to vote
What year were women given the right to vote in Canada?
1918
Revolutionary/radical ideology
political ideology
extreme left
rapid, often violent, change
Counterrevolutionary/Reactionaryideology
political ideology
extreme right
resists change
going back to the "good old days" would be the only accepted change
Collectivism
economic ideology
government control
Individualism
individual control and activity
competition
economic ideology
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
17th century
common good
people are good and have been corrupted by civilization and society
humans are naturally free and equal
opposed representative democracy; believed citizens should make laws directly
Representative Democracy
a small group of politicians are elected by a large group of citizens
economic freedom
the freedom to buy what you want and to sell your labour, idea, or product to whomever you wish
free markets
markets in which consumers and businesses have free choice to buy, sell, or trade, without government interference in those transactions
welfare state
the economy is capitalist but the government uses policies that directly or indirectly modify the market forces in order to ensure economic stability and a basic standard of living for citizens
Enlightenment / Age of Reason
late 17th century and 18th century
promoted beliefs of classic liberalsim
Protestant Reformation
opposition of the Catholic Church
and its religious power
more faith in the rationality of the individual
Robespierre
leader of French Revolution (that led to Reign of Terror)
Industrialization
stage of economic development
technology resulted in mass production and consumption, and a change in national living standards
capital
money
What did Upton Sinclair write?
The Jungle; about the horrors of the meatpacking industry
Caused a public outcry
Teddy Roosevelt introduced "Meat Inspection Act" and "Pure Food and Drug Act"
command economy
centrally planned economy; centralization of the means of production in the hands of the state
i.e. Soviet Union, China, North Korea
Great Depression
economic crisis beginning in 1929 with stock market crash
Banks failed, factories closed, many people unemployed, international trade declined
John Maynard Keynes
'periods of inflation are followed by periods of recession'
supply and demand

to lessen the recession gov't should spend more money and reduce taxes, and the opposite of times of inflation

"demand side economics"
Franklin D. Roosevelt
as president, put Keynes theories to practices in States
"New Deal" : providing employment through government projects
more of a welfare state
labour standards
government enforced rules and standards for a safe, clean working environment
protection of workers rights with collective bargaining, free association, and freedom from discrimination
Russian revolution
reaction to injustices of authoritarian czarist system and uncontrolled free-market capitalism (bourg. benefited from prol.'s work)
Bolsheviks (led by Lenin) wanted to destroy this liberal economic system and change to communism
Reforms after the Russian Revolution (by the czar)
basic civil rights
universal suffrage
creation of an elected legislative assembly (Duma)
What happened after Lenin's death?
Stalin took control and implemented collectivization (all land combined and collectively worked)
eugenics
controlling human reproduction so that desirable genetic traits are encouraged and undesirable traits and eliminated
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
prevents monopolies between competing companies
restriction of trusts
Germany swung towards __________ during the Great Depression
extremism