Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
interstate highway system
Before highways were built by the state, but the gov't receives pressure from auto makers etc. to create a better highway system. The creation of these highways favored the automobile industry, and neglected mass transit.

As industry flourished in West, the new highways allowed for movement of goods/people westward.
urban renewal
to revitalize the city, gov't tears down older sctions and rebuilds them to attract middle-income people. The lower class housing is destroyed, creating a missmatch.
invasion and succession
notion conserning the social construction of neighborhoods. (Chi school theory) Neighborhoods change as new types of people enter the area. When that new population becomes the majority, there is a succession.
people prefered to live in neighborhoods with people silimar to them. Not necissarily race segregated... activities/lifestyle etc.
white flight
suburban changes in 1950's. Belief- due to ivasion and succession of blacks, whites feel pressure to leave. ALSO- jobs steadily moving outside of the city, and they must move with them.
mass transit
gov't sponsored system of transportation. get people from where they live to where they work. Eliminates traffic in the city. US does not prefer mass transit. People want the convenience/independance of their own car.

Problems in mass transit eliminate working class from possible jobs that they cannot get to.
william j wilson
U Chi/ harvard. Wrote a lot about poverty in the US cities. Pariculalry interested in the underclass.

notices two types of poor: working poor, and underclass.

Wonders what happens to inner city neighborhoods when jobs leave? Whose fault is it that the underclass exists?
Highway Lobby
group of companies that supported/innitiated the interstate highway system. (auto/insurance/tire) people who had a state in the money gained by creating better roads.
Pre-industrial cities
before 1830's (creatiion of factories). citieds in colonical america. COMPACT/CONCENTRATED. AROUND WATERFRONT. MANUFACTURING DONE IN HOME/SHOP. walking=important form of transportation.
aid for families of dependant children. Support to wome and children. (originally objected to giving money to men b/c they should be able to find jobs. ) focus on giving money to the deserving poor. (50-60s). THEN - women take advantage of welfare programs-reform needed.
Social Disorganization
chi school. belief that people in the city were more likely to commit wrong acts than those in the rural environment. due to family structures/ social responsibility
underground economy
an economy "off the books" Take on jobs w/o notifying the IRS. ex.(clean houses, fix cars, paint etc.) or illegal activities(sell drugs, prostitution, gambling)
divides up cities according to land use. city gov'ts attempt to protect the citizens. where to put industry/how many people per house.. size of house etc. DIVIDES SPACE W/IN CITIES.
environmental racism
a greater willingnes to throw waste (toxic) into/near poor areas. VULNERABILITY OF POPULATIONS . concentrations of problems.
culture of poverty
people are poor because they choose to be. They make poor decisions that ultimately create a bad situation for them. Lack of respect/care result in poverty.
highways/bridges/public space. How much money is the city willing to put into these areas?
the chicago school
from the Uchi. the first sociologists to take an in depth look at the social patterns/makeup of the urband envrionment. Started with CHicago.1920's) wanted to know what made people urban.

Important people: Park, Wirth, Burgess,
Robert Park
Founder/chairman of the CHi school. he thought the best way to investigate/learn about a city was to look at them with first hand observation. Thought of cities as being divided into "natural areas" based on needs/activities of that group of people.
the central business district of a city. as the growth on the periphery of city continues, the CBD becomes more centered around corporate offices, law offices, banking, advertising, specialized retail etc. Creates a mismatch b/c the people who live in the cites are unable to obtain jobs from these places. Often a very nice section of town but surrounded with not so hot neighborhoods.
working poor
people who work full time jobs, but still fall below the poverty line. Or, fall into legitimate problems; lose job b/c of injury/layoff, looking for a job but can't find one, lack transportatioin, lack necessary skills.
one of the results of the agriculrtural revolution. (The ability to create crops w/o nomadism.) The surplus allowed for other skills/jobs to be created. (specialization)
decline in unskilled/semiskilled jobs. They are moved to other places outside US where cheaper labor/no unions. structualists conncet deindustrialization with growing poverty levels.
federal housing Administration. Part of Roosevelt's new deal. Issued insured mortgages allowing middle class people to buy homes. If home owner defaults on mortgage, FHA reimburses bank. Established lending rules. Saved a declining housing market. Incerased # of people who could afford homes. Stimulated new construction.

***left people of color behind in cities (denied FHA mortgages)
concentric zone theory
Ernest Burgess- saw cities as a series of concentric rings. used for different purposes. as city expands, rings grow larger but basic form stays the same.

Mostly true for cities east of CHI
New Deal
two main goals:
1. temporary relief to poor.
2. public housing for the poor.

(#2 actually resulted in concentration of poor which is now viewed as a mistake. ) fed gov't assumed responsibility for poor. still assumed that deserving poor(women and children) should be helped first.

established FHA
WEB dubois
Du Bois found direct correlations between level of employment, level of education and criminal activity.
public housing
1930's. Response to depression and collapase of housing market. provided temporary shelter.

assumption that housing filters down from high to low income. Actually divides housing market into subgroups.. concentrating poor, increasing instability. (high concentration of social problems)
industrial revolution
produces more for less. workers skill changes(only have to make one part) center of activity moves from the port.

mass production
workers skill changes. workers have less control. consumers get lower prices. profits rise
urban underclass
a term coined by Wlliam T wilson. a relatively small population within persistant poor. Somestimse confused with all poor. It's a small group that causes big problems.
industrial city
center of activity moves from port.
cities grown in scale
creation of CBD
need housing near place of work.

as city expands, transportation is needed.
social scientific research conducted w/in a social setting.

Methods: observation, interview, photo/video recording.

method used by Elijiah Anderson.
sunbelt shift
movement of US business and populations to TX AZ. NM etc. for lower costs, cheaper labor/ability to build plants easily linked to superhighways.

result of norther cities experiencing strins of age, high costs, rising taxes.

problems: increasing crime/llution. inadequate infrastructure.
structural approach
few good jobs. many bad jobs with low pay/no benifits. OR more willing workers than jobs. decline in unskilled jobs. welfare reform. employer discriminatio/negative sterotypes. employment effected by zip code.
blase attitude
overstimulation causes urban residents to overlook situations that are immoral/tragic.