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36 Cards in this Set

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Factory Act
early 19th century limited the hours children were permitted to work and the age at which they could begin work
Enlightenment
• Humanistic approach to life, liberty, the individual, and the law
• Crimes began to be less sinfull
o Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
• Believed:
1. People not bound by sin but have a choice
2. People are rational and use reason to govern their lives
3. People pursue self-interests at the expense of others
Poor Laws:
• English statues that allowed the courts to appoint overseers over destitute and neglected children
• forced children to serve during their minority in the care of families who trained them in agricultural, trade, or domestic services.
Apprenticeship
• children were placed in the care of adults who trained them to discharge various duties and obtain skills
What types of work did children do during the middle ages (500CE to 1500CE)
• Boys-worked in agriculture, farming or apprenticeships (blacksmith, carpentry, stone craft)
• Girls-worked as seamstresses or housemaids or habadasher (sp?)
• Nobel boys-Apprenticed to be a lord or knight
• Nobel girls-learnt to read, write and supervise
• Children of all social classes spent small part of lives w/ parents
Chancery Courts:
Court proceedings created in fifteenth century England to oversee the lives of highborn minors who were orphaned or otherwise could not care for themselves.
Parens Patriae
power of the state to act on gbehalf of the child and provide care and protection equivalent to that of a parent.
Child Savers
Nineteenth century reformers who developed programs for troubled youth and influenced legislation creating the juvenile justice system; today some critics view them as being more concerned w/ control of the poor than with their welfare
Massachusetts Stubborn Child Law
“if any man have a stubborne and rebellious sonne of sufficient years and understanding, which will not obey the voice of his father or the voice of his mother, and that of his mother, and then when they have chastened him will not harken unto them” they could bring him before the court and testify that he would not obey…may be put to death.
Best interest of the child
a philosophical viewpoint thaqt encourages the state to take control of wayward children and provide care, custody, and treatment to remedy delinquent behavior.
Status Offenses
conduct that is illegal only because the child is under age. (such as purchasing alcohol)
Uniform Crime Report (UCR):
compiled by the FBI, UCR is the most widely used source of national crime and delinquency system.
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS):
collects data on each reported crime incident
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS
the ongoing victimization study conducted jointly by the Justice Department and the US Census bureau that surveys victims about their experiences w/ law violation.
Choice theory
holds that all youths will engage in delinquent and criminal behavior after weighing the consequences and benefits of their actions; delinquent behavior is a rational choice made by a motivated offender who perceives that the chances of gain outweigh any possible punishment or loss.
Utilitarians
Those that believe that people weigh the benefits nd consequences of their future actions before deciding on a course of behavior
Cessare Beccaria (philosophy of punishment):
to be effective, punishment must be sufficiently severe, certain, and swift to control crime.
Routine Activities Theory
view that crime is a “normal” function of routine activites of modern living; offenses can be expected if there is a motivated offender and a suitable target that is not protected by capable guardians
General deterrence
crime control policies that depend on the fear of criminal penalties, such as long prison sentences for violent crimes; the aim is to convince law violators that the pain outweighs the benefit of criminal activity
Specific deterrence
sending convicted offenders to secure incarceration facilities so that punishment is severe enough to convince offenders not to repeat their criminal activity
Equipotentiality
view that all people are equal at birth and are thereafter influenced by their environment.
Arousal Theorists
delinquency experts who believe that aggression is a function of the level of an individual’s need for stimulation or arousal from the environment. Those who require more stimulation may act in an aggressive manner to meet their needs.
Psychodynamic Theory
branch of psychology that holds that the human personality is controlled by unconscious mental processes developed early in childhood.
Identity Crisis
Psychological state, indentified by Erikson, in which youth face inner turmoil and uncertainty about life roles.
Id
unrestrained, primitive, pleasure-seeking component w/ which each child is born.
Ego
develops through the reality of living in the world and helps manage and restrain the id’s need for immediate gratification.
Superego
develops through interactions w/ parents and other significant people and represents the development of conscience and the moral rules shared by most adults.
Culture of Poverty
view that lower-class people form a separate culture w/ their own values and norms, which are sometimes in conflict w/ conventional society.
Anomie
normlessness produced by rapidly shifting moral values; according to Merton, anomie occurs when personal goals cannot be achieved using available means.
The truly disadvantaged
According to William Julius Wilson, those people who are left out of the economic mainstream and reduced to living in the most deteriorated inner-city areas.
Social Disorganization Theory
The inability of a community to exert social control allows youths the freedom to engage in illegal behavior.
Collective Efficacy:
the ability of communities to regulate the behavior of their residents through the influence of community institutions, such as the family and school. Residents in these communities share mutual trust and a willingness to intervene in the supervision of children and the maintenance of public order..
Strain Theory
links delinquency to the strain of being locked out of the economic mainstream, which creates the anger and frustration that lead to delinquent acts.
Social Learning Theory
hypothesis that delinquency is learned through close relationships w/ others; asserts that children are born “good” and learn to be “bad” from others.
Differential Association
asserts that criminal behavior is learned primarily w/ in interpersonal groups and that youths will become delinquent if definitions they have learned favorable to violating the law exceed definitions favorable to obeying the law w/in that group
code of the streets
a set of rules setting down both proper attitudes and ways to respond if challenged (Anderson)
Social Control Theory
posits that delinquency results from a weakened commitment to the major social institutions (family, peers, and school); lack of such commitment allows youths to exercise antisocial behavior choices.