• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things
Durkheim’s Three Elements of Religion:
Beliefs: Some Things are Sacred
Functionalist Perspective:
Questions about Ultimate Meaning
Emotional Comfort
Social Solidarity
Guidelines for Everyday Life
The Functionalist Perspective
Social Control
Support for the Government
Social Change
Functional Equivalents of Religion
1.Organizations Like Alcoholics Anonymous

4.Transcendental Meditation
5.Political Parties
Dysfunctions of Religion
1.Religion as Justification for Persecution

2.War and Terrorism
Dysfunctions of Religion Terrorists and the Mind of God
Believe They are Under Attack
Convinced God wants Action
Believe Violence will Resolve Issue
Convinced God has Chosen Them
Perspective Nurtured by Community
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
Religious Symbols
Religious Experience
Conflict Perspective
Marx’s Opium of the People:
(Marx meant that oppressed workers find escape in religion)
Conflict Perspective
Legitimization of Social Inequalities:
1.Social Arrangements Represent God’s Desires

2.Divine Rights of Kings
3.Pharaoh as God
4.Hindu Cast System
Religion and the Spirit of Capitalism - Weber
1.Source of Profound Social Change
2.Religion Held the Key to Modernization
was the first monotheistic religion
believe/worship only one God
Durkheim’s Three Elements of Religion
Practices(rituals): Centering on Things Considered Sacred
Durkheim’s Three Elements of Religion
A Moral Community(church): Resulting from a Group’s Beliefs and Practices
Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
Accumulation of Capital
Move to Thrift and Investment
Salvation through Good Works
Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
Self-denying Approach to Life
Luxury Seen as Sinful
Investment and Reinvestment
The World’s Major Religions
1. Christians (2,000,000,000)
2. Muslims (1,200,000,000)
3. Hindus (820,000,000)
4. Chinese (390,000,000)
5. Buddhist (360,000,000)
7. Jew (14,000,000)
The World’s Major Religions: Judaism
1.Originated 4,000 Years Ago
2.Originated in Mesopotamia
3.God’s Chosen People Through Covenant with Abraham

4.Fundamental Change in Religion to Monotheism

5.Contemporary - Orthodox, Reform, Conservative
The World’s Major Religions: Christianity
Also Monotheistic
Believe Jesus Christ is Messiah
Born in Poverty to a Virgin
At about 30 Jesus Began Teaching
The World’s Major Religions: Christianity
1. 12 Main Followers - Apostles
2. Belief in Christ’s Resurrection
3. Split to Greek Orthodoxy in 11th Century, Reformation in 16th Century

4. Currently about 2 Billion Adherents
The World’s Major Religions: Islam
World’s Third Monotheistic Religion
Founded by Muhammad (Born in Mecca)
About Age 40 had Visions from God
Visions and Teachings Written in Koran
The World’s Major Religions: Islam
Muhammad Founded a Theocracy in Median
Two Main Branches - Sunni and Shiite
Shiites More Conservative and Fundamentalist
Consider Bible Sacred but Koran Final Word
The World’s Major Religions: Hinduism
No Specific Founder
Chief Religion in India for 4,000 Years
No Canonical Scripture
Brahmanas, Bhagavad-Gita, and Upanishads Expound Moral Virtues
The World’s Major Religions: Hinduism
People Make Sacrifices to gods
Polytheistic - Many gods
Central Belief is Karma -Spiritual Progress
No Final Judgment - Reincarnation
Spiritual Perfection Results in Nirvana
The World’s Major Religions: Buddhism
Siddhartha Gautama Founded in about 600 B.C.
Four Noble Truths
Existence is Suffering
Origin of Suffering is Desire
Suffering Ceases when Desire Ceases
Follow “Noble Eightfold Path” to End Desire
The World’s Major Religions: Buddhism
Eightfold Path:

Right Belief
Right Resolve
Right Speech
Right Conduct
The World’s Major Religions: Buddhism
Eightfold Path:

Right Occupation or Living
Right Effort
Right Ecstasy
The World’s Major Religions: Confucianism
K’ung Fu-tsu Born in China 551 B.C.
Public Official Distressed by Corruption in Government
Urged Social Reform
Developed System of Morality Based on Peace, Justice, Universal Order
The World’s Major Religions: Confucianism
Teaching Written in the Analects
Basic Moral Principle - Jen
Loyalty and Morality above Self-Interest
Confucian Golden Rule
Taught the “Middle Way”
Originally Atheistic, Gods Added along the Way
Types of Religious Groups

Begin with Charismatic Leader
All Religions Started this Way
Most Cults Fail
Types of Religious Groups

Loosely Organized and Fairly Small
Emphasize Personal Salvation
Types of Religious Groups

Highly Bureaucratized
National and International
Relationship with God Less Intense
Types of Religious Groups

State Religions
Part of Cultural Identification
Types of Religious Groups
Variations in Patterns:

denomination(disagree particular aspects) Methodist or Baptist
When Religion and Culture Conflict
1. Members Reject Dominant Culture

2. Members Reject Specific Elements of a Culture

3. Society Rejects Religious Group
Religion in the U.S.
Characteristics of Religious Groups
Fundamentalist Revival
The Electronic Church
Secularization of Religion and Culture
The Secularization of Religion
The Secularization of Culture
The Future of Religion
Religion Thrives
Science Cannot Tell Us About…
The Existence of God
The Purpose of Life
An Afterlife