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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
forbidding marriage or sex outside one's assigned group is used to maintain a _____ system
caste
Max Weber used the concept of ______ to analyze the meaning of social class
life changes
Which of the following is a strong predictor of one's occupation, income, and wealth in later life?
education
how far an individual moves up or down the socioeconomic scale in her lifetime is called
social mobility
Studies of social mobility from Peter Blau and Otis Dudley Duncan's in the 1960s to Pierre Bourdieu's in the 1980s have shown that
while there was a great deal of virtical movility, or movement along the cocieconomic scale, nearly all of it was between occupational positions quite close to one another. Long range mobility, from working class to upper class, was rear
status was educatinal attainment and transmission of cultural capital
When on is poor compared to the standards of living of most people, she experiences
relative poverty: it is reasonabile to call a person poor in the united states if he lacks the basic sources needed to maintain a decent standard of housing and healtier living conditions
In Karl Marx's theory, a class is made up of people who have the same relationship to the
Means of production:
The means in which they gain a livilihood
Most faqmine and hunger in the world today are the outcome of
a combination of national and social forces
the combination of drought and internal warfare has wrecked food production
Rapid economic growth in East Asia in the 1980s and 1990s was accompanied by:
helped to pave the way for economic growth
united states provided a big market for clothing etc. Benefied from a long period of economic growth
Economic growth took off at the high point of the cold war
Some, due to their cultural traditions shared confucian philosophy
many asian goverments followed strong policies that favored economic growth
Sweatshops are:
low wage low factory, a small factory that has numerous violations of wage, health and safety laws
Which theory promotes the adoption of Western capitalist economic systems and values as the road to economic development
market oriented theories
The ______ are regions of the world that apply technology invented elsewhere in their own production and consumption systems
Technology Adopters
In what way could you personally help reduce the amount of expolitive and dangerous child labor in the world today?
stop buying from these countries
Which gender is the dominant and aggressive one among the !Kung of the Kalahar Desert?
Agressive behavior isn't tolerated
_____ refers to any difference in status, power, and prestige between men and women in groups, collectives, and societies
gender inequality
Which of the following has been offered as a sociological explanation for the gap between women's and men's work in the home?
household work is exchanged for economic support
women's jobs bind them to a fix time mens household tasks are done less regularly & more discretionary
family incorporates a strong & relatively enduring association of caring activity
men are expected to be providers women expected to tend to their families
_______ is the systematic domination of females by males
patriarchy
______ means that women and men are concerntrated in different occupations
sex segregation
What agency has helped develop ties among women's movements in countries around the world?
modern womens movement
Overall, sociologist conclude that
no society can truly hope to better the lives of its citizens until it fosters gender equality
When people adope an identity in some contexts but not in others they are practicing
symbolic ethnicity
Behavior that disqualifies members of one group from opportunities available to others is:
new racism or cultural racism
Racism that is not simply the opinions of a small seqment of the population, but systematically pervades all of a society's structures and operations, is known as
institutional racism
Suspicion of outsiders and a tendency to judge other cultures in terms of one'w own cultural standards is called
look up
in several parts of former Yugoslavia, certain ethnic groups were subjected to harassment, threats, and campaigns of terror in order to forcibly expel them and create ethnically homogeneous regions. This practice is known as
ethnic cleansing
When a group takes over the attitudes and language of the dominate community they have engaged in
Assimilation
Global migratory patterns are a result of the combination of _____, the movement of people into a country to settle, and ______, the process by which people leave a country to settle in another
immigration
emigration
More than 99 percent of the people in the United States are descended from
look up
Average life expectancy in the world today is
65 years old
Which of the following is the sociological definition of aging?
biological: physical body
phychological: mind & mental capibility
social one: cultural norms, role expectations
Role expectations for the elderly vary
supreme court justice, senior advisor doting grandparent religious elder, grumpy old men, senior citizen, spinster, mentally confused, duddering old men
Recent theories on aging emphasize
view elderly as playing an active role in determining their own physical & mental well-being, family work and living conditions are important sources of one's self-concept
Research in the United States shows:
look up
The average monthly benefit for recipients of social security
$845 retired
$786 disabled
$810 nondisabled - weren't widowed or workers
The question of generational equity will become more acute as
fewer and fewer working age people to shoulder the tzx burden necessary to support more and more retirees. May come a time when a predominately white elderly retired population is supported by taxes paid by a predominately nonwhite working population
Which of the following is a characteristic of a traditional state?
population ruled by a king or emperor with little awareness or interest in who governed them. Had no political rights or influence. Only the dominate classes or more affluent groups felt a sense of belonging to an overall political community
Which of the following is a characteristic of a nation-state
provides a sovereign territory. Government possesses authority over an area with clear cut bounderies, within which it is the supreme power
The primary source of the contradictions that lead to class struggle and revolution is ______, in Marx's model
economic changes or changes in the force of production. As forces of production alter contradiction is intensified, leading to open clashes between classes
Which of the following contributed to the "wave of democracy" in the 1980s and '90s
look up
Why do corporations prefer to do business in democratic states, according to the text?
look up
According to Ehrenreich ("Nickled and Dimed")
book on an experiment on low income and how to live
Anderson sees much of the code of the streets as an effort to:
exists in poor, inner-city African-American communities. While some people do not adhere to the values underlying this particular code, it places all young African-American males under extreme pressure to respond to in certain ways to certain compromising situations. Anderson Heargues ostensibly that young black males learn criminal activity a
Among the functions of the idea of an "undeserving poor" are all of the following EXCEPT:
look up
Robert Reich describes inequality in wealth and earnings in the US as:
look up
Reich believes that, in addition to global economic changes, the "social compact" is weaker because
Americans no longer face the common perils of Depression, hot war, or cold war
new global economy, those more skilled, more tallented, or wealthier are not as economically dependent on the local or regional economy
the wealthy and poor are likely to have markedly different life experiences.
Ritzer thinks the strongest criticixms of the McDonal's system are ones that:
People who were born before the process and knew a different way of life
people from non-mcdonalds cultures
The perspective of the author of "Border State Patrol" could best be described as that of:
suspicion is common and fair treatment is not always forthcoming.
Most people who study deviance, including William Chambliss ("Sains and Roughnecks")recognize that
visibility, demeanor,bias. Roughnecks patternof deviancy was reinforced, and breaking away from it became increasingly unlikely. this will continue unless some event external to the established relationship intervenes.
Ehrenreich concludes from her study that:
its impossible to live on a low salery
Low tips or the failure to be tipped at all is interpreted by the waitresses as
Divert blame for stiffs and low tips from the waitress to the characteristics of the customer.