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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
economic system
an institution the coordinates human activity in the effort to produce distribute and consume goods a services
goods
any product that is manufactures grown or extracted form the earth such as food clothing gouseing auto coal computers
services
activities performed for others that result in no tangible product such as entertainment transportantion financial advice medical care spritual consuling and education
mechanization
the addition of external sources of power such as oil to hang toolds and stream to transportation
capitolism
an economic system where the raw material and the means of poducing and distibuting are provatly owned profit driven freee of government interferance consumer drivin
private ownership`
a situation in which individuals own the raw materials machines toos labo trucks buliding and other imputs eeded to produce an distribute goods and services
law of supply and demand
natural laws regulating capitolist economies such that "as demand for an item increases, prices rise/ when minufaturers respond to the price incease by producing a larger quantity of theat item, this increase competitoin and drives prices down."
socialism
an economic system in which the raw materials and the means of producing and distributing goods and services are collectivly owned
core economics
the wealthiest most highly diversified economics with strong stable governments
peripheral economics
economics that rely on a few commodities or even one commodity such as coffee peanuts or tabacco or a single mineral resource such as tin copper or zinc
semiperiperal economics
economics characterized by moderate wealth (but extreme inequality) and moderate diversification they exploit peripheral eco and inturn are eploited by core economics
primary sector of the economy
economic activities that generate or extract raw materials from the natural enviornment
secondary sector
economic activities that turn raw materials into manufactured goods
teriary sectors
economic activity related to delivering services including the creation and distribution of information
MONOPOLY
SITUATION IN WHICH A SINGLE PRODUCER DOMINATES A MARKET
OLIGARCHY
RULE BY THE FEW OR WHERE A FEW PEOPLE DOMINTAE THE MARKET
conglomerates
larger corp owns smaller corp aquired by merge or aquisition
characteristics of the us economy
???
political system
the institution that regulates the use and access to power that is essential to articulating and realizing individual local regional national international global interests and agendas
power
the probability that and individual can achieve his will even against anothers opposition
authority
legitmate power in which people believe that the differences in power are just and proper people veiw a leader as being entitled to give orders
traditioal authority
a type of authority that relies on time honored norms that govern the selcction of sower for a high powered position (king queen cheif)
charismatic authority
a type of authority that derives from the exceptional and exemplary qualifications of the person who issues the commands
legal rational authority
rests on a system of impersonal rules that specifies the qualifications for occupying a position of power
democracy
government systme in which power is vested in the citizen body and in which members of that body participate directly in the decision making process
totalitariansim
1- single ruling party led by dictator 2- unchallenged definition of the perfect society and how to acheive it 3- system of social control that supresses dissent and opposition
4- centeralized control of the media and the economy
authoritarian government
sytem in which there is no seperation of power and a single person (dictator) group or social class holds all power
power elite model
people who hold such lofty posistions ini the social structure that their decisions effect millions of people worldwide
pluralist model
views politics as an arena of compromise alliances special interest groups and power is dispersed among these groups
demography
a subspcialty within sociology that focuses on the study of human populations with particular empahasis on their size and rate of growth
birth rate
the annual number of births per every 1000 people is a designated area
age specific birth rate
the annual number of births per every 1000 women of a certain age group
total ferility rate
the average number of children that women in a specific population bear over their lifetimes
CRUDE DEATH RATE
THE ANNUAL NUMBER OF DEATHS PER 1000 PEOPLE IN A DESIGNATED area
infant mortality rate
the death rate among those 1 year or younger
population pyramids
series of horizantal bar graphs that represent a five year cohort allows us to view rge relative sizes of t he age cohorts and ti compare % male an females
constrictive pyramids
narrower at the base then the middle showin that population is composed disproprtionally of middle ages and older people
stationary pyramid
SHOWS ALL AGE COHORTS IN TE SAME POPULATION ARE ROUGHLY THE SAME SIZE
MIGRATION RATE
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE NUMBER OF POPLE ENTERING AND THE PEOPLE LEAVING EACH YEAR THE DIFFERENCE IS DIVIDED BY THE SIZE OF THE RELATIVE POPULATION AND THEN THAT NUMBER IS MULTIPLIED BY 1000
IMMIGRATION
PEOPLE ENTERING A COUNTRY
INTERNAL MIGRATION
THE MOVEMENT WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF A COUNTRY FROM STATE TO STATE OR CITY TO CITY
DOUBLING TIME
THE ESTIMATED NUMBER OF YEARS IT WILL TAE FOR A COUNTRYS POPULATION TO DOUBLE
THEORY OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION
???
LABOR INTENSIVE POOR ECONOMICS
COUNTRIES THAT DIFFER MARKEDLY FROM INDUTRIAL COUNTRIES ON INDICATORS SUCH AS DOUBLING TIME, INFANT MORTAITY TOTAL FERTILITY PE CAPIT INCOME CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY
DEMOGRAPHIC TRAP
THE POINT WHERE POPULATIONS GROWTH OVERWHELMS THE ENVIRONMENT 'S CARRYING CAPACITY
MEGA CITY
AN URBAN AGGLOMERATION WITH 8 MILLION OR MORE PEOPLE
CENTRAL CITY
THE LARGEST CITY WITHIN A METROPOLITAN NSTATISTICAL AREA IN SOME CASES TWO OR MORE ADDITIONAL CITIES IN AN msa CAN BE DESIGNATED AS CENTRAL CITIES
SUBARB
AN URBAN ARE OUTSIDE THE POLITICAL BOUNDARIES OF A CITY