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130 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social products like religion & language are a product of what type of culture?
Non-Material Culture
Physical products like things are a product of what type of culture?
Material Culture
Culture is defined as _________.
the total way of life of a group of people.
__________ are important & serious norms that must be obeyed.
Values & Beliefs __________ Norms.
___________ will always reflect the Values & Beliefs.
Honesty is to Value as __________ is to Norm.
not to steal
Symbols are defined as___________.
Anything that carries a particular meaning within a culture.
_________ is our most important symbol.
Facial expressions are _____________ symbols.
The junction between Ideal Culture & Real Culture causes ______________.
many social problems
Cooking & food preparation, funerals & mourning are all ______________.
Cultural Universals
Society is defined as _________________.
a group of people who occupy a common territory or region & who participate in a common culture.
Social Structure is _________.
the way society is organized. (the bones, nerves & muscles)
Social Institutions are defined as______________.
An established & enduring pattern of social relationships.
Social Institutions are important ______________ of society.
building blocks
Give some examples of Social Institutions.
family, religion, economy, military education, science, medicine, political/legal, sports, mass media
What are the four levels that make up society.
1. Social Institutions 2. Social Groups 3. Statuses 4. Roles
Social Groups are defined as _________.
2 or more who have a common identity, interact, & form a social relationship.
What are the two types of Social Groups?
1. Primary Group 2. Secondary Group
Primary Group is defined as _____________________.
small, informal, intimate group, where they care for each other & know each other.
Give some examples of Primary Groups.
family, friends, roommates, street gang
Secondary Group is defined as _____________.
formal goal oriented group that has to be together, like a business group.
How we interact day to day is based on _____________.
Status is defined as __________.
a position of a person.
What are the three types of Status?
1. Ascribed Status 2. Achieved Status 3. Master Status
Ascribed Status is defined as ____________.
Status one did not choose, learn, or can change.
Give an example of Ascribed Status.
male or female, race, sister, royalty
Achieved Status is defined as ___________.
Status we choose or earn.
Give an example of Achieved Status.
CEO, college grad, occupation, single, married, father
Master Status is defined as __________.
Social Status that Dominates/ takes over the others - How OTHERS see us.
Roles are defined as ____________.
a set of rights, obligations & expectations associated with a status.
You Occupy a status, but you ________ a Role.
Status is to college student as Role is to __________.
study, take test, party
An example of the four levels of society is - _______________.
Education - IUS - college student - studying
Subculture is defined as _____________.
Cultural patters that set apart some segment of a society's population, (A culture within a culture. Something that sets it apart from dominant culture.)
Give an example of a Subculture.
2 groups based on income that have very different lifestyles than dominant Culture are the VERY rich & the Very poor, teenagers & elderly, military, prisons
Counterculture is defined as _______________.
Cultural patters that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society. (Subculture that is at odds with Dominant Culture.)
Give some examples of Counterculture.
hippies, KKK, terrorist
Counterculture want to ________ & __________ Dominant Culture in a radical way.
change & replace
What are the two ways to respond to Variation & Diversity?
1. Culture Shock or Ethrochentrism 2. Cultural Relativism
What is Culture Shock?
disoriented, uneasy, uncomfortable
Ethnocentrism is defined as _________.
the tendency to judge other cultures by the norms & values of one's own culture. (the view that one's own culture is superior to all others.)
Give an example of Ethnocentrism.
condemning Koreans for eating cats & dogs
Cultural Relativism is defined as ___________.
the practice of evaluating a culture by its own norms & values. (the opposite of Ethnocentrism)
What are the 5 Components of a Social Problem?
1. Objective & Subjective Elements 2. Endurance over time 3. Incompatible w/ Norms & Values 4. Who is affected or offended by the condition 5. Social Causes & Social Solutions
Objective Element is defined as ___________.
An observable or measurable condition.
Subjective Element is defined as ___________.
The Social perception of a condition. (society's reaction)
Both _____________ & _______________ must be there to = a Social Problem.
Objective & Subjective Elements
Give an example of Objective Element.
spousal abuse, drunk driving, homelessness
Give an example of Subjective Element.
Laws making spousal abuse illegal, MAD, legislation to help the homeless.
Why are Social Problems so difficult to eradicate?
Social Problems are interrelated - Poverty & Education - the #1 cause of poverty is the lack of education
What are the two primary issues that cause - Incompatibility with Norms & Values?
1. Diverse Values 2. Disagreements on what is problematic
What are the 2 school of thought concerning who is affected or offended by a/the condition?
1. Significant Numbers 2. Significant People & Powerful Groups
How is "Significant Numbers" defined?
The more people that are affected the more it will be seen as a Social Problem.
Give an example of Significant Numbers.
Unemployment rate at 12% is a Social Problem. Unemployment at 2% is an individual's problem.
Give an example of "Significant People & Powerful Groups."
AIDS started as a homosexuals disease. It became a Social Problem when it moved to powerful people like celebrities & the Ryan Whites of America.
Social Causes are defined as _____________.
caused or compounded by the Social Order, NOT by nature.
Social Solutions are defined as ____________.
Social or Ethical Solutions through human action & promote humanity.
What are the 4 Stages of a Social Problem?
1. Societal Recognition 2. Social Legitimation 3. Mobilization or action 4. Implementation of an official plan
Societal Recognition is defined as __________.
Some group recognizes a problem & begins to say something needs to be done.
Social Legitimation is defined as _____.
They try and spread the word about the cause & issue. Today the Media is a powerful tool.
Mobilization for action is defined as ________.
People start to debate what can be done. People start to become a little more rational.
Implementation of an official plan is defined as ___________.
Being in the hands of the police, school system. Someone is getting their hands dirty doing something about the condition.
Theory is defined as __________.
A set of interrelated propositions or principles designed to answer a question or explain a particular phenomenon. (Organizing fragmented work for research)
Theory & Research are 2 sides of __________.
One coin
Theory allows us to ___________.
Explain & predict
Theories are ___________________ by research.
confirmed, modified, rejected
Theoretical Perspective is defined as ____________.
A BROAD based/ all purpose theory or model of reality.
What are the 3 Theoretical Perspectives?
1. Structural-Functionalist 2. Conflict Perspective 3. Symbolic Interactionist
___________ & ____________'s contribution help shape Functionalist Perspective.
Durheim & Spencer
Functionalist Perspective is a macro or micro theory?
Macro Theory
Functionalist Perspective is defined as __________.
a society is like a system or network of independent components.
According to the Functionalist Perspective, Society operates in a state of _______________.
Equalibriam. The System is stable & balanced.
Give an example of Functionalist Perspective.
Family depends on Edu to Edu their kids. Edu depends on families to supply the kids.
According to the Functionalist Perspective, everything has a _______________.
specific function.
According to the Functionalist Perspective, what are the 3 types of Functions?
1. Manifest Functions 2. Latent Functions 3. Dysfunctions
Manifest Functions are defined as ____________.
Intended or obvious functions
Give an example of Manifest Functions.
pub school to edu kids, welfare to fund poor, car for transportation
Latent Functions are defined as __________.
unintended functions (less obvious)
Give examples of Latent Functions.
Edu -> jobs, identifying child abuse- Welfare -> jobs, reduce crime
Dysfunctions are defined as __________.
Negative consequences or harmful
Give examples of Dysfunctions.
Edu -> lowers the standard to fit all children- Welfare-> abuse of the system- Cars-> pollution
According to the Functionalist Perspective, what is the cause of Social Problems?
Social Change
According to the Functionalist Perspective, how can Social Change cause Social Problems?
Can throw off the equilibrium. It is seen as harmful. Disorganization that is the result of rapid social change. (Aromie: a state of normlessness = Social Disorder)
Give an example of how Social change can cause Social Problems.
Rapid Tech changes -> displaced workers. Econ & Tech changed faster than Edu = creating an imbalance.
___________ contributions help shape the Conflict Perspective.
Karl Marx
Conflict Perspective is defined as _________________.
Society is characterized by conflict, competition & inequality.
According to the Conflict Perspective, Society is comprised of different groups competing for ____ & _________.
power & resources
Give an example of the Conflict Perspective.
Rich vs. Poor - the rich want more tax breaks & the poor want more welfare - this equals Conflict.
According to the Conflict Perspective, conflict can produce ___________.
According to the Conflict Perspective, change can be a ___________.
good thing
What are the 2 schools of thought in the Conflict Perspective?
1. Marxist Conflict Theory 2. Non-Marxist Conflict Theory
Marxist Conflict Theory is defined as _____________.
Conflict over Social Rewards (economic- money, land, power)
Non-Marxist Conflict Theory is defined as _________.
Conflict over Values (abortion, same sex marriage) Can also include economic conflict)
According to the Conflict Perspective, most societies are divided up like a __________.
According to the Conflict Perspective, the Pie Theory allows you to identify what group has the power by determining who has the _________ piece of the pie.
According to the Conflict Perspective, what ever group has the largest piece of the pie has the power & the society will reflect their ___________.
According to the Conflict Perspective, what is the Cause of Social Problems?
Unequal access to social rewards. Clash of Values & Interests.
___________ & ____________'s contribution help shape Symbolic Interactionist.
Horton & Mead
Symbolic Interactionist is defined as _____________.
Humans interact through the use of symbols.
Is Symbolic Interaction a Macro or Micro perspective?
Micro Perspective
Micro Perspective is defined as __________.
face to face/ small group level
According to Symbolic Interactionist, Society is possible because of shared __________.
Doctor - patient, student - teacher, are what type of interactions.
Micro Interactions
The Theory Verstehen was introduced by ____________.
Max Weber
Verstehen is defined as ___________.
the ability to see reality from another's perspective. ( to understand in an empathetic way) Not in a factual way but in your gut. This is an important tool in Sociology,
The Thomas Theorem was introduced by ____________.
W.I. Thomas
The Thomas Theorem is the theory that ____.
Reality is a social product. What people believe is real becomes real in its consequences. If people believe something it can become reality.
According to The Thomas Theorem, what are the causes of Social Problems?
When a group defines a situation as problematic.
Variable is defined as ___________.
Any measurable event characteristic or property that varies or is subject to change.
Hypothesis is defined as ___________.
A tentative statement based on a general theory that attempts to predict the relationship between variables.
What are the 2 types of Variables?
1. Dependent Variable 2. Independent Variable
Dependent Variable is defined as ______________.
The variable the researcher wants to explain.
Independent Variable is defined as _____________.
The variable expected to explain the changes in the Dependent Variable.
Dicern the Dep & Ind Variables in the following Hypothesis: As length of marriage increases the risk of divorce decreases.
Dep: Risk of Divorce Ind: Length of marriage
Discern the Dep & Ind Variables in the following Hypothesis: Males are more likely to abuse alcohol than females.
Dep: Rate of Alcohol Abuse Ind: Sex
Discern the Dep & Ind Variables in the following Hypothesis: People living in poverty have a shorter life expectancy compared to people in higher income levels.
Dep: Life Expectance Ind: Social Status
Discern the Dep & Ind Variables in the following Hypothesis: Jews have a lower divorce rate than other religions.
Dep: Divorce Rate Ind: Religion
Most research looks at the cause & effect relationship between ___.
Correlations are defined as _________.
A consistent statistical association between variables.
What are the 4 types of Correlations?
1. Positive 2. Inverse/Neg 3. Curvilinear 4. Spurious
Positive/Direct Correlation is defined as ________.
when both variables change in the same direction. The increase in one variable associated increase with another variable.
Give an example of Positive Correlation.
Family income > = college attendance >
Negative/Inverse Correlation is defined as _________.
When both variables change in opposite directions. The increase of one and the decrease of the other.
Give an example of Inverse Correlation.
Family income > = infant mortality rate <
Curvilinear Correlation is defined as ________.
Variables changing in both the same & opposite directions.
Give an example of Curvilinear Correlation.
Age & leisure, alcohol & social ability
Spurious correlation is defined as ___________.
quencidental correlation. No cause & effect between variables.
What are the 4 Methods of Data Collection?
1. Surveys 2. Experiments 3. Field Research 4. Secondary Data Research