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55 Cards in this Set

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We construct a _______ by simply accumulating scores to individual attributes
index
T/F

Scales are generally superior to index
TRUE
which of the follwing represents decisions that must be made when scoring indexes?
-one must descide the range of index scores that are desirable

-one must decide how to assign scores for each response
_____ is the process of testing the validity of measure by examining its relationshop to other indicators of same variable
external validity
T/F

typologies should always be avoided in social research
FALSE
T/F

set of questionaire items tha a researcher applies a guttman scale to on one data set will usually produce the same gutman scale on another data set.
FALSE
giving a set of judges a large number of items that are thought to be indicators of given variable and asking them to estimate how straong an indicator of the variable each item is, is a technique used in constucting a ________ scale.
thurstone
T/F
scales take into consideration the intensity with which different items reflect the variable being measured.
TRUE
a _____ scale is a measurement technique for dtermining the willingness of peopl to partcipate in social relations - varying degree of close ness - with other kinds of people
Borgardus social distance scale
what do indexes and scales have in common?
they rank order the units of analysis in terms of specific variables.
___ sampling is employed in field research where by each person interveiwed may be asked to suggest additional people for interviewing
Snowball
As Sample size increases, the standard error __________ in size
decreases
t/f
cluster sampling may be used when it is impossible to compile an exhaustive list of elements composing the target population
TRUE
a sampling interval of 5 was used to select a sample from population of 1000. how many elements are to be in the sample?
200
experiments are especially well suited for research projects involving..
limited concepts,well defined concepts, hypothesis testing.

ALL THE ABOVE
a ______ experiment eliminates the possiblity of a researcher prejudging results.
double blind
_____ refers to the possiblity that the conlcusion drawn from experimental results may not accurately reflect what has gone on in the experiment itself.
internal validity
natural experiments are most likely to resemble which of the following designs?
static-group comparision
which is the cheif advantage of controlled experiment?
the isolation of the experimental variable's impact over time.
among the requirements for the classical experimental design is a post test measurement of the..
dependant variable for both the experimental and control groups.
t/f
the problem is external validity refers to the generalizability of results.
TRUE
t/f
in a natural experiment, the research does NOT manipulate the independant variable
TRUE
a ____ is an instrument specifically designed to elicit information that will be useful for analysis
questionaire
a ______ is a survey question intended for only some respondents, determined by their responses to some other question
contingency question
The major problem with secondary analysis pertains to...
validity
which of these are among many advantages tha underlie the growing popularity of telephone surveys?
money, time, conveneice.

ALL the ABOVE
which guideline does the follwing questionnaire item violate?

"would you not say that crime is not a serious problem in the us?"
avoid negative items.
t/f
opened ended questions are comparable to multiple choice questions and closed ended questions are comparable to essay questions.
FALSE
when using field research, you're confronted wit.h..
-decisions about role you'll play as observer
- your relations with ppl you're observing

both A and B
_____ is an old tradition in qualitative reserach based on assumption that an objective social reality exists and can be observed and reported accuratley
Naturalism
_____ describes when the subjects of social research may react to the fact of being studied, thus altering their behavior from what it would have been normally.
reactivity
t/f
the naturalist approach is based on telling "their" stories the way they "really are," not the way the ethnographer understands "them"
TRUE
IN a _____ , typically 12-15 ppl are brought together to engage in a guided discussion of some topic.
Focus group
in comparison to surveys and experiments, field research has ____ validity and ____ reliability.
high validity, low reliablity
what may be examined in the content analysis?
books, magazines, webpages

ALL the ABOVE
which type of research does not require the researcher to intrude on what he or she is studying?
unobstructive research
wwhich occurs when you obtain a copy of someone else's data and undeertake your own statistical analysis?
secondary data
which are types of unobstructive research methods?
content analysis, analysis of existing statistics, comparitve and historical research.

ALL the above
________ are individual units that we make descriptive and explanatory statements about.
unit of analysis
when we base research on an analysis of data that already exsists, we face problems of ___
validity
t/f
in data collection and analysis, the determination of unit of analysis occurs after sample.
FALSE, occurs at beginning
which are illustrative of unobstructive observations?
-examining floor tiles to determine which exhibits are popular
-examiing number of beer cans on campus to determine beer consumption
-examining wear of tires of squad cars to determine extend of police patrols.


ALL THE ABOVE
_____ is the general term for samples selected in accord with probability.
probability sample
the unit about which information is collected and that provides the basis analysis is called an ______
element
the cheif purpose of probability samlping is to be able to select
sample who's stats will accuratly portray unknown population perimater.
a summary of description of a variable in a sample is called a ____.
statistics
a _______ population is that aggregation of elements from which a sample is actually selected.
study
what does external validity provide?
larger sample has better external validity. cant generelize
collection of dataa and how it relates to the subject you're discussing
internal validity
requirements for experimental design?
controlled group given placebo and experimental group the real one.
what should not have overlap in categories; uniformity of response.
mutually exhaustive.
classifications of observations in terms of attributes on 2 or more variables
typologies
range of values within which population parameter is estimated to lie
confidence interval
technique for assigning experimental subjects to experimental and control groups randomly
representativeness
empricial data you've already collected
guttman scale