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48 Cards in this Set

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A statement of a relationships between two or more variables. (p. 37)
hypothesis
The degree to which the research yields the same results when repeated by the same researcher or other researchers. (p. 40)
reliability
Usually involves one person asking another person questions, with the answers being recorded. (p. 41)
interview
A research technique for describing a social group from the group's own point of view. (p. 43)
ethnography
The paying of close attention to changes in families over time.
(p.56)
developmental family life cycle theory
A focus on the micropatterns of face-to-face interaction among people in specific settings such as marriages and families. (p. 53)
symbolic interactionsim
A view of society as an organized and stable system, made up of a
variety of interrelated parts or structures. (p. 47)
structural functionalism
Adopts an economic model of human behavior. (p. 55)
social-exchange theory
Encourages self-confidence, rationality, competition, and coolness. (p. 50)
instrumental traits
A set of beliefs about the superiority of men and inferiority of women that justifies prejudice and discrimination against women. (p. 57)
sexism
An explanation of some phenomenon. (p.36)
theory
Provides empirical evidence as a basis for knowledge or theories.
scientific research
Factors that can have two or more values. (p. 37)
variables
Data or evidence that can be confirmed by the use of one or more of the human senses. (p. 37)
empirical evidence
A set of procedures intended to ensure accuracy and honesty throughout the research process. (p. 37)
scientific method
The degree to which the study measures exactly what it claims to be measuring. (p. 40)
validity
Enable scientists and others to gather information by asking people questions. (p. 41)
survey
Usually provides autonomy to persons answering researchers' questions. (p. 41)
questionnaire
People frequently modifying their behavior because they are aware that they are being observed. (p. 42)
Hawthorne effect
A detailed, in-depth examination of a single unit. (p. 42)
case study
Methods designed to study conditions or processes that are hard to measure numerically. (p. 41)
qualitative analysis
C. The study of variables that can be measured numerically. (p. 40)
quantitative analysis
A system of beliefs.
ideology
A minitheory, a set of propositions intended to account for a limited set of facts. (p. 47)
theory model
Intended, overt function. (p. 49)
manifest function
An unintended, unrecognized function. (p.49)
latent function
Performing a positive service by helping to maintain the system in a balanced state or promoting the achievement of goals. (p. 49)
functional
A feature of a system that might actually hamper the achievement of the group goals and disrupt the system's balance. (p. 49)
dysfunctional
Focuses on social structures and institutions and the notion that conflict is natural and inevitable in all human interactions. (p. 52)
conflict theory
Objects, words, sounds, and events that are given meaning by members of a culture. (p. 53)
symbols
The process whereby people assign meanings to social phenomena that almost always cause those who draw upon these meanings to emphasize some aspect of a phenomenon and to ignore others. (p. 53)
social construction of social construction of reality
An extension of symbolic-interaction theory in which the analysis is framed entirely in terms of a conceptualization of the social construction of reality. (p. 53-54)
social contructionism
Traits which encourage nurturance, emotionality, sensitivity, and warmth. (p. 50)
expressive traits
A(An) _______________ is an explanation of some phenomenon.

variable

symbol

hypothesis

theory
theory
Data or evidence that can be confirmed by the use of one or more human senses is

a theory.

empirical evidence.

a variable.

a symbol.
empirical evidence.
______________ is the degree to which a study measures exactly what it claims to be measuring.

Empirical evidence

Validity

The scientific method

Reliability
Validity
When people are aware that they are being observed, they frequently modify their behavior, either deliberately or subconsciously. This phenomenon is known as

manifest functions.

ethnography.

the Hawthorne effect.

expressive traits.
the Hawthorne effect.
A (an)______________ is a broad explanation of social reality from a particular point of view.

variable

theory model

hypothesis

perspective
perspective
A ______________ would examine such issues as how families organize themselves for survival and what functions families perform for society and for their individual members.

structural functionalist

symbolic interactionist

social constructionist

conflict theorist
structural functionalist
When a feature of social system is not performing a positive service by helping to maintain the system in a balanced state, it is considered to be

functional.

a manifest function.

dysfunctional.

a latent function.
dysfunctional.
From the ________________ perspective, marriages and families can be viewed as smaller versions of the larger class system, where the well-being of one class is the result of exploitation of another class.

structural functionalism

social constructionism

conflict

symbolic interactionism
conflict
The _____________ is based on the notion that society is made up of interacting individuals who communicate primarily through the use of objects, words, sounds, and events that are given meaning by members of a culture.

symbolic-interactionism

developmental family life cycle theory

social-exchange theory

conflict theory
symbolic-interactionism
That culture, history, politics, and economic conditions all influence individual experiences of social reality is a fundamental assumption of the _____________ perspective.

structural functionalism

social-exchange theory

social constructionist

developmental family life cycle theory
social constructionist
One of the criticisms of social-exchange theory is that

the model is specific to a particular time and place, does not utilize a historical context, and does not deal with the diversity of experiences that have always characterized U.S. families.

its underlying assumptions that power is people's main objective and conflict is the major feature of social life are too narrow.

it ignores the objective realities of inequality, racism, sexism, and the differential distribution of wealth, status, and power among the various groups.

it assumes that humans are rational, calculating beings who consciously weigh the costs versus the benefits of their relationships.
it assumes that humans are rational, calculating beings who consciously weigh the costs versus the benefits of their relationships.
The _______________ theory assumes that sexism is the basis of women's inequality.

lesbian feminist

socialist feminist

liberal feminist
liberal feminist
Socialist feminist theory
combines classic Marxian class analysis and the feminist principle of social protest.

contends that oppression is pervasive throughout society.

maintains that the sexual division of labor is the first form of class conflict.

focuses on issues of equal opportunity and individual choice.
maintains that the sexual division of labor is the first form of class conflict.
One very important criticism of most feminist theories is that

they are biased toward the experiences of white, middle-class, heterosexual women.

humans are rational, calculating beings who consciously weigh the costs versus the benefits of their relationships.

it ignores the objective realities of inequality, racism, sexism, and the differential distribution of wealth, status, and power among the various groups.

the underlying assumptions that power is people's main objective and conflict is the major feature of social life are too narrow.
they are biased toward the experiences of white, middle-class, heterosexual women.
A major criticism of the new politics of masculinity is

the underlying assumptions that power is people's main objective and conflict is the major feature of social life are too narrow.

its view of men as primary victims.

it ignores the objective realities of inequality, racism, sexism, and the differential distribution of wealth, status, and power among the various groups.

its view that humans are rational, calculating beings who consciously weigh the costs versus the benefits of their relationships.
its view of men as primary victims.