Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/48

Click to flip

48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Spouse, parent, student, employee and teacher are

roles.

achieved statuses.

ascribed statuses.

gender identities.
achieved statuses
_____________ is used to justify unequal treatment such as women in the military being denied the opportunity for career mobility that is associated with combat experience.

Gender role stereotyping

Sex

Gender role socialization

Gender identification
Gender role stereotyping
The socially learned behaviors, attitudes, and expectations that are associated with being female or male are referred to as

achieved statuses.

ascribed statuses.

gender.

gender identity.
gender.
A fertilized egg will develop into a female if it has the ____________ sex chromosomes.
XX
Persons who believe that they were born with the body of the wrong sex are

called transsexuals.

considered by scientists to be intersexed.

homophobic.

classified as homosexual.
called transsexuals.
Data suggest that differences between females and males develop out of a complex interaction of biological and cultural factors. Individuals learn the appropriate roles, as defined by their culture, through the process of

gender identity.

ascribing certain statuses.

gender role socialization.

achieving certain statuses.
gender role socialization.
Freud believed that children learn gender appropriate behaviors by

taking an active role in organizing their world.

unconsciously identifying with their same-sex parent.

constantly receiving metamessages about what is valued and important in their culture.

modeling, or learning through imitation.
unconsciously identifying with their same-sex parent.
______________ theory asserts that children learn gender appropriate behaviors indirectly through observation and modeling.

Social-learning

Psychoanalytic/Identification

Cognitive-development

Enculturated-lens
Social-learning
______________ theory maintains that once gender identity is developed, children are able to organize their behavior around it.

Psychoanalytic/Identification

Social-learning

Cognitive-development

Enculturated-lens
Cognitive-development
According to Bem, individuals are constantly receiving _____________, lessons about what is valued and important in their culture.

content analysis

gender role stereotyping

metamessages

expressive traits
metamessages
Agents of socialization are

created by the sociological imagination.

found only in a person's family of orientation.

the individuals, groups, and organizations that help form an individual's attitudes, behaviors, and self-concepts.

found only in a person's family of procreation.
the individuals, groups, and organizations that help form an individual's attitudes, behaviors, and self-concepts.
Children are provided their first exposure to gender learning by

the media.

their peers.

their parents.

their teachers.
their parents.
Researchers employ a technique called ____________, whereby they examine the actual content of programs by counting particular items within specific categories, such as the number of males and females featured in the program.

the scientific method

content analysis

modeling

key status
content analysis
According to a survey, 15 percent of the girls and 8 percent of the boys reported that they dieted or exercised:

to be healthier.

to look like a TV character.

on doctor's orders.

to fit in.
to look like a TV character
Historically, the mental health field has

frequently reflected gender-related stereotypes.

avoided allowing gender-related stereotypes to play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and treatment of mental health patients.

avoided traditional gender associations when diagnosing and treating mental health patients.

ignored gender-related stereotypes in diagnosis and treatment of patients.
frequently reflected gender-related stereotypes
T or F

Sociologists regard the status of being female or male to be a master status.
True
T or F

Gender refers to the physiological characteristics that differentiate females from males.
False
T or F

The mother's genetic contribution determines the child's sex.
False
T or F

Certain Asian, South Pacific, and North American Indian societies recognize a third gender called the berdache.
True
T or F

Historically, the female gender role clustered around being the provider and protector of the family.
False
T or F

Traditional male gender roles required men to be non-emotional, non-expressive, and in control at all times.
True
T or F

In the United States, traditional gender roles have routinely been associated with white middle-class heterosexuals.
True
T or F

Sigmund Freud was among the first to explore how concepts of masculinity and femininity vary across cultures.
False
T or F

Research has found that parents, especially fathers, tend to engage in more rough-and tumble play with infant and young sons than they do with daughters.
True
T or F

Research has found that women in nontraditional occupations were, as children, more likely to have played with boys.
True
T or F

Two factors have been identified as major contributors to educational gender disparities: the organization of schools and teacher behavior.
True
T or F

According to the text, prime time television portrays women in a wide range of roles.
False
T or F

Both women and men perceive the female role as having more disadvantages than the male role.
True
T or F

There have been no observable gender differences in mental health.
False
T or F

According to Deborah Tannen, the purpose of women's "rapport talk" is to preserve independence and to negotiate and maintain status in the hierarchical order.
False
A status acquired by virtue of our own efforts. (p. 65)
achieved status
The type of status of being male or female in our society.
master (key) status
Statuses we are born into. (p. 65)
ascribed status
Persons who believe that they were born with the body of the wrong sex. (p. 68)
transsexuals
The oversimplified expectations of what it means to be a woman or a man. (p.65)
gender role stereotypes
The biological aspects of a person. (p. 65)
sex
A theory which argues that hidden cultural assumptions about how societal members should look, behave, and feel are deeply embedded in social institutions and cultural discourse. (p. 76)
enculturated-lens theory
The socially learned behaviors, attitudes, and expectations that are associated with being female or male. (p. 65)
gender
A theory which views gender appropriate behavior as being learned by unconsciously identifying with the same-sex parent. (p. 73)
psychoanalytic/identification
A theory that maintains that behavior that is regularly followed by
a reward is more likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that brings forth
punishment is more likely to be discontinued. (p. 74)
social-learning

modeling


cognitive-development


agents of socialization
. The process of counting particular items on television programs within specific categories. (p. 81)
content analysis
The overall feelings--positive or negative--that a person has about her-or himself. (p. 84)
self-esteem
A person's awareness of being female or male. (p. 65)
gender identity
The term used for people who are born with ambiguous genitalia. (p. 67
intersexuality
A process by which people acquire the gender roles that their
culture defines as appropriate for them. (p. 69)
gender role socialization
social-learning
A theory that maintains that behavior that is regularly followed by a reward is more likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that brings forth punishment is more likely to be discontinued. (p. 74)
modeling
An indirect method of learning gender roles and gender identity. (p. 74)
cognitive-development
A theory that maintains that once gender identity is developed, children are able to organize their behavior around it. (p. 75)