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49 Cards in this Set

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Particularistic norms
when norms for behavior vary from person to person
· Universal norms
guidelines for behavior that apply to all members of a community, more common in industrialized societies
· Post-figurative culture
particularistic norms pre-industrial societies (family farms)- socialize children almost exclusively through contact w/ the culture’s elders, b/c the way in which older generations have lived is almost identical to the way in which subsequent generations will live
· Configurative culture
universalistic norms industrialized societies-everyone did the same- socialization of young people is accomplished not merely thru contact between children and their elders but thru contact between people of the same age
· Pre figurative culture (Post industrial culture
adolescents become adults, teachers, communication age- this is if configurative culture changes more rapidly
· Factors that rise to age segregation
age grading
· Youth culture
young people maintain attitudes and values that are different from adults -· Youth culture that promotes sports, dating, partying, smoking, fashion- this culture is separated from parents and has a lot to do w/ why culture doesn’t have traditional values and not interested in education like their parents and grandparents were
· Selection
similar peers attracting each other
· Cliques
boys and girl cliques never cross over-average 5-6 people- based on activities and friendship-
· Crowd
large groups peak during mid adolescent yrs. – the share a similar image or reputation among peers or have a common feature such as ethnicity or neighborhood- in contrast to cliques- crowds are used to locate adolescents w/in social structure of the school, channel adolescents into associations w/ some peers and away from others and to provide contexts that reward certain lifestyles and disparage others
· Reference group
a group against which an individual compares himself or herself- being labeled
· Self concepts
idea that you have about yourself
· False sense behavior
being onstage, putting on a show- pathological liars
· Ideal self
how you want to be
ACTUAL SELF
the way you are
· Fear of self/feared self
self that you don’t like to show, but know its there
· Extroversion
HOW OUTGOING AND ENERGETIC A PERSON IS
· Agreeableness
come from authoritarian family- HOW KIND OR SYMPATHETIC A PERSON IS
· Conscientiousness
how responsible or organized a person is
· Neuroticism
how anxious or tense someone is
· Openness to experience
how curious or imaginative someone is
· Self-esteem
new term, started in 70’s – how good you feel about yourself
· Barometric
always changing, ups/downs
· Baseline
stable-about the same before and after adolescents-ex- girl catches b/f cheating- good baseline, she will get over it quick- bad baseline, she will commit suicide- parents should encourage good baseline self esteem- more rational
· Code switching (Biculturalism)=
acting like a culture when you are submersed in it, the switching back- best type of behavior is from another culture
· Psychosocial moratorium
going and finding yourself, traveling b4 careers and college
· Psychosocial theory
erickson- people move thru 8 crises over the course of their life span- each crisis takes on special significance at a given period of the life cycle b/c biological and social force interact to bring the crisis into preominence
Identity crisis
a series of crisis that may concern different aspects of the young person's identity and that may surface and resurface at different points of time in adolescent and young adult years
· Aggressive child
school shooters/ w/drawn, teased, keep aggression inside the blow up
· Withdrawn child
shy, timid, inhibited, victims of bullying
· Problematic child (most problematic = aggressive withdrawn child)
· Erick Erickson- 8 types of psychosocial development stages
trust vs. mistrust (infancy)
automony vs. shame (early childhood)
initiative vs. guilt (play stage)
industry vs. inferiority (adolescence)
identity vs. indentity diffusion (young adult)
identity foreclosure
saying you want to be a doctore at 13, then enrolling is a rigid premed program instead of looking at other jobs
identity diffusion
incoherent, disjointed- incomplete sense of self
· Relationship aggression
acting out behavior- girls do backstabbing and rumors- aggression intended to harm other adolescents through deliberate manipulation of their social standing and social relationships
· Hostile attribution bias
both sexes- passive aggressive inside-unaware, pick fights- plays a central role in the aggressive behavior of rejected adolescents
· Freud’s theory
ID- pleasure principle, ill do what gives me immediate pleasure, smoking a doobie
SUPEREGO- informal control/self control, I will adhere to parental and social norms, If I transgress, ill feel guilty, I will not smoke a doobie
EGO- rationalization-personal relevance- doobie smoking should never be illegal, it’s a victimless crime and not as dangerous as alcohol.
· Symbolic interaction
deviance is learned by interaction w/ significant others, from this you form your superego-learn what is right/wrong
· Sutherland
behavior tend toward group conformity- if everyone else is doing it, why shouldn’t I
why are Adolescents more deviant cohort in our society?
full of energy- sensation seeking
· Critical Period
gender roles aren’t defined, woman expect more from men
· People are less deviant if: attachment-close to family, authoritative—commitment, involvement-church, boy/girl scouts, feeling like you belong—belief- something is right/wrong
· Best type of learning environment-
authoritative- warm nice environment
· What happens when we desegregate schools/bussing (blacks being bussed to white schools, more likely to graduate but feel bad b/c not w/ own peers) know pros and cons
minorities have little impact of achievemnt, higher levels of self esteem- when they are in desegrgations schools
students in segrgation schools have weaker feelings of attachemnt to their schools- White flight
· Education reform- 1950,60,70,80
70- career education class- prepared for workforce
80- more academic requirements- higher order thinking
· How many kids being bullied at school-
1 in 4
· Lg schools vs. small schools
lg schools, more extracurricular activities, diverse curricula, more material resources- sm, more togetherness- odds are better to be involved in school activities.
tracking in schools
separating students into different levels of classes w/in the same aschool-AKA ability-grouping
research tracking suggests that is has positive aspects ont achievement students in more advancesd tracks, but negative effects on students in the lower tracks
mainstreaming
integration of all students w/ special needs into regular classrooms,pros/cons- special ed classes can be tailored for certain needs, but can cause isolation and stigmatization
School colors movie
· Desegregations is a myth b/c like to segregate themselves
Tough Guise Movie
· Male socialization
· Males have to fit in a little box to be strong and in control
· Boys killing boys and being violent in an unexamined problem in our culture
· Make a connection between their socialization and gender insensivication