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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Science
a logical system that bases knowlege on direct, systematic observation
Scientific Sociology
the study of society based on systmatic observatoin of social behavior
Empirical Evidence
information we can verify with our senses
Concept
a mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form
Variable
a concpet whose value changes from case to case
Measurement
a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case
Operationalize a Variable
specifying exactly what one is to measure before assigning a value to a variable
Reliability
consistancy in measurement
Valididty
actually measuring exactly what one intends to measure
Cause and Effect
a relationship in which change in one variable (the independent variable) causes change in another (the dependent varible).
Independent Variable
a variable that causes change in another (the dependent variable)
Dependent Variable
a variable tha is changed by another (independent variable)
Correlation
a relationshp in which two (or more) variables change together
Spurious Correlation
an apparent, although false, relationship between two (or more) variables caused by some other variable
Control
holding constant all variables except one in order to see clearly the effect of that variable
Objectivity
personal neutrality in conducting research
Replication
repition of reseach by other investigators
Interpretive Sociology
the study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world
Critical Sociology
the sudty of society that focuses on teh need for social change
Gender
the personal traits and social positions that memebers of a society attach to being male or female
Reseach method
a systematic plan for conducting research
Experiment
a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
Hypothesis
an unverified statment of a relationship between variables
Hawthorne Effect
a change in a subjects behavior caused simply by te awarness of being studied
Survey
a research method in which a subject responds to a sreies of statemnts or questions in a questionair or an interview
Population
the people who are the focus of research
Sample
a part of a population that represents the whole
Questionaire
a series of written questions a researcher presents to respondants
Interview
a series of questions a reseacher admininsters in person to repspondans
Participant Observation
a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in thier routine activities
Secondary Analysis
a research method in which a researcher uses data collected by others
Inductive logical thought
resoning that transforms specific observations into general theory
Deductive logical thought
resoning that transforms gernal thoery into a specific hypothesis suitable for testing