Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/123

Click to flip

123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
which of the following types of sociology is more likely to make a claim to be value-neutral or value-free?
basic
which of the following is not one of the three elements that together create science as discussed in class
statistics
what are the three elements taht together create science as discussed in class
theory, research, application
author Kurt Vonnegut, Jr takes the position in the "Afterword" of Free to Be...You and Me taht first graders should learn about
cultural relativity
"everything that a group of people have learned and preserved from past collective experience" is one defintion given in class for
culture
"The transmission to an individual of attitudes, habits, skills and social standards through interaction and realtionships with others" is
socialization
A sociological perspective on the social institution of family defines it as
socially constructed by humans
The socail institution of religion impacts the socail institution of the family through the creation or support of norms, beliefs and values. Upon which of the following subjects do various United States religions DISAGREE
bitch control, abortion, homosexuality, same-sex marriage, cohabitation, and divorce
"A cluster of norms, roles, values, symbols, and beliefs centered around some major societal need" is
social institution
Professor Keating asserted that a basic principle of healthy family relationships is the "Golden Rule". This principle is promoted by
a wide range of religious traditions including Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Tao, Buddhism, Native American, Wicca...
The final step of the eight-stage reserach process dicussed in class is
communicate findings to the scientific and lay communities
A librarian needed to decrease the budget for books and decided to ask each patron entering the library for an entire week to complete a questionnaire about their recommendations. this type of research is
social survey
The Union of Concerned Scientists have expressed concern recently through a press relase because
they have documented a number of cases in which the current federal government administration has suppressed or distorted research findings
which of the following government programs is documented by searach to be successful in terms of reducing the problems they are designed to reduce
women's infants and children nurtrition programs
In terms of cultural preference, although not actual practice, the most popular form of marriage in the world is
polygyny
When a man and woman become engaged on the Aran Islands, Ireland what does the bride do traditionally?
She designs a new sweater combining the designs of her family and his
The Winnedbago
originally resided in Wisconsin but were moved by the government to MInnesota, and then Sout Dakota, they are not in Nebraska
When twins were born among the traditional Todas in India,
one twin as killed so that the remaing twin would have enough food to be healthy
Among the TOdas marriages were traditionally
polyandrous, arranged by parents during the brides's infancy
The HOpi are
matrilocal, matrilineal and monogamous
The Hopi bride's wedding clothes are
made by the gromm and his male relatives
DNA testing of skeletons in Old Europe indicate
a matrilocal, matrilineal family system
The ancient Hebrews were the first to
develop a monotheistic relighion with a single god
Among the ancient Hebrews
men but not women coyuld divorce or any reason
In which society were women considered inferior to men biologically, intellecturally and emotionally; needed their husband's permission to leave the house veiled and chaperoned and could be executed for adultery
ancient Athens in Greece
Among the ancient Greeks
marriage was a sacred obligation
Which of the following political views takes the position that the family is the most important social insitution
conservative
Acoording to C. Wiright Mills, and important American sociologist cited by Aulette
the micro level and the macro level shape and determine each other
Which of the following is an example of the macro level of socail experience
laws taht prohibit marriage between people of the same sex
IN 1850 two percent of the pouplation lived past their seixty-fifth birthday. what percentage does so today
75
All of the following were provided by women in the Godly Family
food and clothing, health care, child care
The body of the seneca iroquois was composed of
men chosen by women
Aulette compared the Puritan and Seneca Iroquois. She pointed out that power was held by those who
controlled the source of livilihood, the land
During the ninteenth and early twentieth centuries, working class families were likely to send
husbands and children into the labor force while women earned money working in their homes
The Depression created much poverty and prompted changed in family behaviors.
The birth rate, marriage reate and divorce rate all fell dramatically
studies of Japanese Americans who were held in concentration camps by the American dovernment during World War two show
the internment had a traumatic, negative impact of family organization disrupting traditional patterns and leaving people feeling vulnerable and fearful. the internment had a postive impact on family orgainization disrupting th traditonal patriarchy and giving wives and children more control over their lives
During slavery, slaves were viewed as property by the legal system. They had no legal rights
and they were not allowed to legally marry
Historians and sociologists cited in Aulette differ in their explainsations for the decrease of equality between men and women ad African American families moved from slavery to sharecropping. Some suggest that men were attempting to vindicate their manhood by asserting authority over women. Others suggest that..
the seculsion of women in nuclear families with men handling the direct contact with white landowners and marchants was a stategy to protect women from a real threat.
During the period of Reconstruction after th Civial War in the South, former slaveowners re-enslaved African Americans under the age of 21 through
indentured servitude if their parents were nto legally married or were declared as not employeing the children in honest industrious occupations
Around 1880 the U.S. Governemtn developed a policy "to obliterate the cultureal heritage of Native Americans and to replace it with the values of Anglo-American society" The key strategy to accomplish this was
removal of children from their tribal homes and families and placement in boarding schools a long distance away so they did not see their families for several years
In research cited by Aulette , nine months after a plant had closed. 51% of the workers reported the unemployment had ________ impact of their marriage, 33% reported ______ impact on their marriage and 16
% reported ____ impact
no...a negative....a postive
Patricia Boydanoff asserts that there are several medciating factors in a person's response to a layoff which can make the difference in a family's ability to cope. These mediating factors can be divided into two types
family defintion of the events and family resources
The economic growth experienced by the United States for almost thirty years after World War 2 was a result of
the combination of a demand for goods from nations damaged by world war 2 and a relatively undamaged productive system in the U.S
How are American families dealing with the current decline in the economy as discussed by Aulette
By putting more family members into the paid labor face, by increasing debt.
All of tghe following are true of the poeple whoa re buried in Potter's field, a cemetary for the poor people of Ne York City
Their bodies are buried in unmarked graves, twenty to thirty bodies are buried in each trench grave, after thirty years the graves are bulldozed under in order to make room for more bodies.
tHE MOST IMPORTANT SINGLE PREDICTOR OF A MAN'S OCCUPATIONSAL STATUS IS HIS
FATHER'S OCCUPATIONAL STATUS
Which socail sclass includes the largest proportion of people in our society, about 60-65%
working class
research cited by Aulette indicates taht the group that is most conscious of cultivating community responsiblitiy is the
black middle class
geographical residential mobility is most pronounced among the
middle class
among vietnamese and other southeatern asian immiagrants, the concept of extended family obligations includes
aborad range of relatives who are alive, ancestors who have died, family members of the future
All of the following are true about Mexican American families immigrating to the United States
before 1965 men had come mostly unaccompanied and stayed for long periods of time in bachelor communities inw hcih multiple men shared, once they arrived int eh United states, women quickly worked ot establish networks for goods and information, men were proud of having learned domestic skills during the separation and contined to share these tasks when their wives joined them
Apsects of creating sociological analysis
predicting, assuming, interpreteing, correlating, and assingning sigificance
C. Write mills used the rerm histories for the _________ of societies
lives
Father of sociology
Ernest Burgess
Who believes "The family sphere is qualitatively different from the public sphere. The public and private spheres are separate socail realms"
Ernest Burgess
________ argue that our values or beliefs about families are the ways in which we try to make our lieves live up to those beliefs should follow certain prescribed patterns. They assert that families are teh most important socail institution
conservatives
Three social insituations
economic system, politial system, and religion
the word ______ describes someting as being totally uniform
monolethic
Mitchell describes four essentail social structures that are interwoven throughout society
production, reproduction, socialization and sexuality
Mills'theory of the Sociological Imagination...
the micro level, the macro level, the effect of the macro level on the micro level, and the effect of the micro level on the macro level.
Goldy family lasted from
early 1600s until about the time of the Revolutionary War
The modern Family consists of
a breadwinning husband, a housewife, and their dependent children
Modern family had two stages
Democratice Family and the Companionate family.
The third stage of families from 1970-present
postmodern family
The Godly Family is associated with
preindustrial agriculturally based economy.
Modern Family is associated with
development of industrialization
The postmodern family is associated with
deindustrialization
The Goldy family the Purtians esablished in the colonies was characterized by four factors
The family stucture was patriarchal, families were highly integrated into the comunnity, Each family was a enarly self-sufficient economic unit, all social activies, including educaiton, health care, and welfare, took place within familes.
Patriarch literally means
rule by father
T or F preindustrial patriarchal families (Purtain) did not included several generations of kin. Households with more than two generations were rare because of the short life span.
T
During the Godly Area homemaking tasks fell into four categories
mothering, meal provision, clothes provision, and nursing
Seneca people lived in
extended family groups, controlled by women
Modern Family differed from premodern Godly Families in four ways
work was split into unpaid domestic work and paid work, individuals could freely contract marriages based on love, privacy and the separation of families from the community were promoted for middle calss, women had fewer children, but were supposed to spen moer time at thier "natural" and demanding tasks of mothering.
The prescription for proper behavior for wives and mother sin the early nineteenth century has been called
"cult of true womanhood"
"Cult of True Womanhood" women were to be juded by four virutes
piety, purity, submissiveness, and domesticity.
"Cult of True Womanhood" most important attribute
piety
"Real Woman" were being advised to
avoid the frail, helpless, dependent role and to take pride in strong bodies and minds
Real women were counseled to have
"muscles like harpstrings"
Real women were told what about their educations
extend them
Real women shoud be...
physically fit, educated, be aware of their choice in husband, be able to support themseleves.
The idea of real women was brought about between
1840-1880
Child labor was extremely common upon what area
modern family
Postwar baby boom was between
1940-1957
Chinese American Family history could be periodicized into three eras:
split families, family-wage or family-based economies, and consumption economics
Four main points of African Americans
slavery, 1600 to 1865, sharcropping, industrialization, and the New Sourth or post-Civil Rights era
A system of legal segregation is called
de jure segregation
Moonogamy
is the practice of marring only one person at a time and remaing sexually exculsive with that person
David Wiggins
foudn taht one of the games the slave schildren played was called auction.
Most common reasons slaves ran away were
resentment over punishment and to find relatives
Chicano men were recrited to work in
mining camps and on railroad gangs
Four reasons why chinese men had to leave there wives when they came to America
specification not the bring wives, encouraged them to stay in contact with family, immigration laws provented it, afraid of racial harassment
The period in history where rual southerners whose jobs were taken over by farm equipment were froced to move to the North and into the urban ares of the south
Great Migration
Gidden's socail agencies
symoblic orders, polictial insituations, economic institutions and laws
In the middle of the 1970s, the economic growth reversed and the wages of American workers began to decline. This reversal in the direction of th U.S. economy has been called
The Great U-Turn
Three strategies to try to maintain shelter in the face of the rising costs
pay a larger proportion of their income for housing, try and find a cheaper house, families have looke dto the government for assistance in helping them meet their housing costs
The most life-threatening result of the Great U-Turn
homelessness
Homeless people have been unable to call on one possible source of support, their own parents or siblings for three reasons
their parents are dead, their parents or siblings lived too far ways, they were estranged from their families
Three reasons why welfare hotles have serious shortcomings
They do not famie facilities for food storage or prepartion. although welfare hotels provide more privacy than shelters, families still must share accommodations with prositues and drug dealers, extremely costly
The development of the new economy in the late _______ diminished the problem of unemployment
1990s
Living-wage
ordinaces forced employers who receive contracts or tax benefits from local governments to pay their employeeswages a few dollars over minimum wage
Citizen wage system
would distribute the goods and services to those who needed them regardless of the number of hours they worked in production
stratification
describe systems of social inequality among different groups of people
United states, three systems of stratifacation
race, class and gender
Three major socail classes
an owning class (10%) a middle class(25-30%) and a working class.
A compatible marriage
first and foremost is a marriage wihtin one's class (Ostrander)
White working-class families characterized by three factors:
the idelogical commitment to marry for love, not money, the importance of extended kin and other networks to economic and emotional survival, and the appearance of separation of work and family
The moynihan Report
blamed the dilapidated housing, poverty, unemployment and inferior education experienced by African American on the organization of black families. Moynihan blamed the victims
matricarchy
rule by the mother
Carol Stack did research on the
flats
Stack found after doing research in the Flats-
kin and nonkin membership, swapping, shared child raising, fuid physical boudaries, and domestic authority of women
Swapping refers to the
borrowing and trading of resources, possessions and services
The Cultural defiiency model claims
that bad culture causes poverty, lack of a two-parent family, welfare
Society structural model on poverty
massive change in the structure o fthe American economy creat epoverty, shifts in the economy elimainate jobs---economies decline causes poverty
MELA
is a group of about four hundred MExican American women who initially came together in the mid-1980s to protest the state's proposal to build a prison in thier neighborhood
Systematic observations to discover or document empirical relationships
research
a measurable indicator taht changes
varibale
one of mutiple categories indicating the measure of a varible
value
Traditional Reserach Process
Define problem
Literature review
develope hypotheseis
develop methods
collect data
analyze data
draw conclusions
communicate findings to scientific and lay communties
Types of reasearch
exploratory, descriptive, explanatory, evaluation
Types of reasearch methods
experiment: laboratory
social survery: questionnaire
participant observation
Unobsrusive measures: secondary analysis
Repetitions of a reserach study with the same or similar research questions or methods
replications
Psychological strain produced by a lack of harmony between two or more aspeacts of our lives such as between knowledge and behavior
cognitive dissonance
tendency to see, acknowledge and remember only those experiences that agree with our preconceived ideas, stereotypes or beliefs
selective perception