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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are deterministic models?
Models that demonstrate how individual should fufill predestined roles in order to perpetuate society; Bowles and Ginitis;
What are culturally attuned models?
These models basically say that we should first look at an individual and then observe the surrounding social structures; Willis and Giroux;
What is cultural capital?
Cultural background, knowledge, disposition, and skills that are passed from one generation to the next;
What is habitus?
Attitudes, beliefs and experiences of those inhabitating one's social world;
What is a subculture?
A group that is somewhat set apart from the dominant cultures in society with their own identity and values;
What is education?
A structured form of socialization in which a culture's knowledge, skills and values are transmitted from one generation to the next;
What are some of the social functions of schools?
1) instill self disicipline
2) teach skills
3) select talent
4) reproduce culture
What are between school inequalities?
Differences in the child's social environment - like teaching quality;
What is an example of within schools?
Tracking - only benefits advanced students;
What were the two schools that Kozol studied?
PS 261 - roller rink, no AC, etc.

PS 41 - solid library, computers, trees, etc.
What were the two reports done on UK schools?
The Coleman Report and hte Rutter's English Study
What did the Coleman Report say about UK schools?
He believed that the child's school environment caused inequality;
What did Rutter's study say about UK schools?
He found that teachers influenced student performance;
What is human capital?
A theory that states that with greater education, people can gain more skills, and then this will make the worker more productive, and therefore, more valuable in the job market;
What is credentialing?
The idea that educational attainment leads to job opportunities, even if there are no specific skills learned in the education;
What is the cooling out period?
Basically when aspirations fail to meet achievements;
How did the HH treat women?
They treated women as objects, and Blacks as victims;
What do the Brothers blame for their lack of success?
They blame themselves, and the lack of economic opportunity; they do not see racism as an important factor;
What are some positive functions of the working poor?
1) Risk Reduction
2) Labor Supply
3) Military People
4) Scapegoating
5) Spatial Cleansing
6) Illegal Drugs
How does racial domination occur?
It is embedded in the social structure; the Brothers facial racial stereotypes that give them a negative view in the workplace; Social tension, reduced occupational networks and discrimination may all influence their lack of success in the labor market;
What is being done to help individuals like the Brothers and the HH out?
1) We need more housing benefits for the poor;
2) Lower class children need access to quality education;
3) Moving to a more service-orientated society puts people at a disadvantage
What does MacLeod wish to do for the kids?
He would like them to see their own status and acknowledge it in society, rather than be blinded and hindered by it in thinking that they can be successful if they have strong personal agency;
What has changed in toy retailing?
1) The labor force
2) The strength of these stores in the economy
3) virtually every toy has a movie/tv tie-in
What role does deregulation play in toy store development?
The FCC has deregulated advertisments and so consumers are becoming increasingly knowledgable about the products for sale;
What are organizations?
They are socially constructed, boundary instilling, goal directed systems of human activitiy.
What do human activity systems do?
Cause role differentiation;
What are the three perspectives of organizational culture?
1) Integration
2) Ambiguity
3) Differentiation perspective
What are the three things that control structures do?
Direct, Evaluate and Discipline;
Whate are the three main types of systems according to W. Richard Scott?
Rational systems, Natural systems, and open systems;
What do rational systems do?
They seek to maximize effeictnecy; they have high goal specificity and formalization;
What do natural systems do?
They look towards behavior rather than formal structures - so more focus on information?
What do open systems do?
They realize that organizations are a system of interdependent activities that are seen in wider material;
What is the evolutionary theory?
It examines how institutions have changed;
What is institutional theory?
why organizations look similar and the environment that makes them look like this - called isomorphism;
What are the three elements of isomorphism?
Coercive - structure expectations;

Normative systems - establish and enforce system of mutual obligations;

Cultural-cogntivie systems - shared beliefs constrain choice and importance of programs and routines;
What is matrix of domination?
It is sorting individuals baesd on race, class and gender;
What is racism?
Attribution of characteristics of superiority or inferiority to a population that shares physically inherited characteristics;
What is institutionalized racism?
Patterns of discrimination that have come structured into existing social institutions - healthcare and housing;
What is discrimination?
Behavior that denies the members of a particular group, resources and rewards that can be obtained by others;
What is prejudice?
The holding of preconcieved ideas about an individual or group, idea that are resistant to change, even in the face of new information;
How has social capital declined?
1) neighborlessness
2) religion is more self-defined

4) family ties are loosening
5) labor union membership has declined
Why has social capital declined?
1) increased amounts of technological leisure
2) movement of women into the labor force
3) demographic factors: fewer marriages, more divorces, and fewer children
4) increased mobility of the US population
What are examples of social capital that are negative in nature?
Terrorist groups, racist organizations, etc.
What is social capital?
Social connectiveness and trust between groups; features of social organizations that allow for greater mutual benefits and cooperation;
What is user behavior?
What people want to get out of an organization;
What is supporter behavior?
What the given organization actually provides;