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40 Cards in this Set

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ethnocentrism
the tendency to judge other cultures as inferior in terms of one's own cultural standards
reverse enthnocentrism
a type of ethnocentrism in which the home culture is regarded as inferior to a foreign culture
cultural genocide
a form of ethnocentrism in which the people of one society define the culture of another society not as merely offensive, but as so intolerable thet they attempt to destroy it
cultural relativity
thr perspective that a foreign culture should not be judged by thr standards of a home culture and that a behavior or way of thinking must be examined in its cultural context
what is culture?
way of life
material culture
all physical objects that people have borrowed, discovered or invented and to which they have attached meaning
non-material culture
intangible creations or things that we cannot identify directly through senses
beliefs
conceptions that people accept as true
values
CONCEPTIONS OF WHAT IS GOOD, RIGHT, APPROPRIATE, beautiful, etc.
norms
written or unwritten rules of behavior or conduct
folkways
norms that we apply to the mundane
mores
norms that are considered imp or essential
what is the difference between denotation and connotation?
denotation is the literal defination

connotation is the set of associations a word evokes
what is an idiom?
Give an example
a group of words when taken together have a different meaning than its intentional meaning

its raining cats and dogs
group
- 2 or more people who share a distinct identity, feel a sense of belonging, and interact directly or indirectly with one another
primary group
social groups characterized by face-to-face contact and strong emotional ties among members
ingroup
agroup with which people identify and to which they feel closely attached, particuraly when thet attachment is founded on hatred from or opposition toward another group
outgroup
a group toward which members of an ingroup feel sense of separateness, opposition, or even hatred
culture shock
the strain that that people from one culture experience when they experience the ways of a new culture
reentry shock
cultural shock in reverse. experienced upon returning home after living in another culture
what are 3 factor that have an effect on the intensity of culture shock?
-the extent to which the home and foreign cultures differ
-the level of the person's perparation or knowledge about the new culture
-the circumstances surrounding the encounter (vacation, job, war)
subcultures
groups that share in some parts of the dominant culture but have their own distinct values, norms, language, or material culture
counter culture
a sub culture that challenges, rejects, or clashes with the norms and values of dominant culture
role taking
stepping outside the self and imagining how others view its appearance and behavior imaginatively from an outsider's perspective
what are the three stages of role-taking?
- imitations
-play
-games
difference between nature and nurture
nature is biological
nurture is interactions that make- up every-day life
socialization
a process by which people develop their human capacities and acquire a unique personality and idenity and by which culture is passed from generation to generation
what are six types of socialization?
- primary socialization
-secondary socialization
-adult socialization
-anticipatory socialization
-resocialization
-gender socialization
who coined "looking at glass-self?
what is it?
Charles Horton Cooley
it describes a way in which a sence of self development in which people see themselves reflected in others' reactions to their appearance and behaviors
resocialization
discarding values and behaviors unsuited to new circumstances and replacing the with new values and norms
what did Margaret Mead study?
famous anthropologist who determined that we are not "born with selves" but rather that our selves are brought out by socialization
gender polarization
organizing social life around male -female distinction so that people's sex is connected to virtually every other aspect of human experience
primary sex characteristics
traits used for reproduction
secondary sex characteristics
physical traits not essential to reproduction (body hair, voice change)
social emotion
internal bodily sensations experienced in relationships with other people
feeling rules
norms that specify appropriate ways to express internal sensations
diffusion
the process by which an idea an invention or some other cultural item is borrowed from a foreign source
engrams
chemically formed entities in the brain that store in physical form a person 's recollections of experiences
collective memory
the experiences shared and recalled by significant numbers of people
reflective thinking
stepping outside the self and observing and evaluating it from another's viewpiont