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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Parts of memory model:
1. Echoic memory and early processing
2.
Feature extraction
Feature extraction: features of the sound event, such as it's frequency spectrum, amplitude are extracted by combining several individual neurons that carry the information
Perceptual binding:
binds the isolated outputs from separate feature extractors into coherent auditory events. Ex. combining the change that marks the beginning of a note with its frequency and tone color
Short-term memory (STM) process
-lasts 3-5 sec on avg.
-avg. 7 elements
-contains categorized memories, both perceptual and LTM
-reverberating pattern of recirculating electrical energy, that sustains the current pattern of neural activity
Focus of conscious awareness
-Only completely conscious part of STM
-All of STM immediately available to conscious awareness, but 3 at most, usually 1 object in consciousness at a time
Chunks
small groupings frequently associated with each other and capable of forming higher-level units, which themselves become elements in memory (example of 14921776, groups of 4 numbers which are date chunks)
rehearsal
the active maintenance of elements in short-term memory, by consciously repeating something to ourselves
working memory
consists of immediate perceptions and related activated long-term memories, as well as LTM that is semi-activated but not yet in consciousness and semi-activated STM that has just moved out of consciousness
echoic/sensory memory
a short echo of the raw sensory electrical impulses in the brain; usually decays in less than a second; pre-categorical
semantic memory
memories of abstract concepts, or categories of objects or events eg. knowing the names of notes, ABCD
Episodic memory
memories of specific experiences or events, placed in the ongoing context of a person's life
-episodic memories are partly constructed using our knowledge categories (semantic memories)
window of simultaneity
-applies to isolated pair of events
-if clicks are closer together than 2 msec, will appear to be simultaneous
-window for simultaneity is smallest for auditory system compared to all other senses
threshold of order
-isolated pairs of events
-between 3-25 msec
-time window during which two events will be heard as separate, but you can't distinguish the order between the two
-appears to be established in higher centers of the brain
pitch fusion threshold
-long chains of events
-when individual events of a chain are separated by less than (1/20) sec (50 msec)
Schema
-organized sets of memories about sequences of events or physical scenes
-schemas may be organized purely in terms of the situation
-we form an abstract model of a situation, based on the invariant aspects that our repeated encounters have in common
-ex. eating in restaurant: ordering, eating, paying the bill
what are the survival advantages of categorization?
quickly provides the appropriate response to a situation without having to consider each new situation in all of its detail
-speedy, reduces memory load
perceptual categories: continuous vs. discrete perception
-given a continuous stimulus, we will tend to perceive only a limited number of discrete categories within that range
-also discrete events in time
nuance
the variation that takes place inside the boundaries of a musical category
ex. bending of pitches, vibrato
-represented at the level of echoic memory