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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are most corticosteriods administered for in Vet Med
anti-inflammatory effects
Name w naturally occuring corticosteriods
1. Glucocorticosteriod (cortisol
2. Mineraocorticosetroid (aldasterone)
what is a primary mediator of immune response
Pain sensation arises in free nerve endings called
NSAID that selectively inhibit _____ are thought to produce fewer GI side effects
Common side effects of NSAID
GI ulceration or bleeding
What do mineralocorticoids do in teh body
regulate electrolyte & water balance
Clinical considerations of NSAID administrateio
1 not curative, only ameloriative
2. close observatin
3. Blood tx - long term effect adreanl, kidney * liver
4. Loading dose & diminish to maintenance levels
5.NEVER abruptly discontinue
6 DO NOT USE for corneal ulcers
Short term side-effects of corticost?
1. Polyuria/polydipsia
2. thining skin, muscle wasting & impaired healing
3. polyphagia & wt. gain
Long term effects of corticosteroids
1. thinning skin
2. gastric ulcers
3. osteoporosis
4. iatrogenic Cushing's Dz
Clinical use of corticost
3. replacement therapy
Contraindications for corticosteroids
1. Steriods irrite peptic ulcers
2. Diabetes
3. Blood dyscrasias (blood cancer
4. Kidney, liver or heart dz
5. pregnant animals - xx placenta
6. glaucoma - increased fluid retension
5 types of corticosteroids
1. Dexamethisone (Azium, Dexasone)
2. Prednisone, prenisolone
3. methylprednisolone (Depo=Medrol
4. prednisolone sodium succinate (Solu-Delta-Crortef)
5. Triamcinolone (vetalog)
Uses for dexamethisone, duration of effect & names
1. Head trauma &
2. hypovolemic shock
3. Long acting - 48 HR

Azium, Dexasone
Duration of effect of prenisolone/prednisone
1. intermediate acting (12-36hr)
Which corticosteroid is good for cats

& what is the duration of effect
methylprednisoone (depo-medrol

intermediate acting
Which corticosteriod is for emergency use only & what is the duration of effect
1. prednisolone sodium succinate

acute disk disorder
TX of shock

Common corticosteriod used for skin allergies & duration of effect
Triamcinolone (vetalog, panalog)

intermediate actin, but strong HALF LIFE(time to excrete 1/2of administered dose
Which corticosteriod is ultra short acting
prednisolone sodium succinate (Sole-Delta-Cortef)
What is a potential electrolyte imbalance in a small animal when using loopdiurectics
What is the effect of ACE INHIBITORS ON THE BODY
Decrease pre-load and afterload on the heart in CHF - by preventing retension of Na & H2O
What is the action oof diltiazem
Calcium channel blocker to relax the heart with thikened walls & poor contractility
Lidocaine is used to control what abnormality
premature ventricular contractions & ventricular tahcycardia
Which osmotic diuretic is used to reduce intracranial pressure or tx oliguric renal failure cases
Mannitol pulls the fluid into the intravascular space
Which GI drug stimulates GI motility
cisapride (propulsid)
What is the drug of choice for tx seizures in cats
4 types of anti-convulsanats
1. primidone
2. phenobarbitol
3. dilantin
4. Soduim Bromide
Which anti-seizure is contraindicated in cats
primadone - cats have trouble metabolizing barbiturates
Define seizure
irregular electrical impulse in the brain
Concept of anti-seizure therapy
Start low until reach control
Most CNS drugs work by_______or ______ the effects of neurotransmitters
interrupting the generation or conduction of nerve impulses

interferring with
How does dilantin work
1. prohibits the spread of abnormal electrical activity but depressoing

2. Prohibits arcing btwn hemis -
good for generalized seizures

How does phenobarbital work
1. sedative for excited
2. anti-seizure for epileptic type seizures
how does primadone work
elevates seizure threshold so a stronger electrical impulse is needed to cause a seizure
4 maintenance anti-convulsant drugs
1. primidone
2. phenobarbitl
3. Dilantin
4. Sodium Bromide
When to use Sodium Bromide
adjunct to phenobarbital or primidone therapy

Monitor for vomiting and ataxiz(trouble walking)
Side Effects of anti-seizure drugs
1. drowsiness
2. CNS depression
3. anxiety
4. agitatin
5. pu/pd
6. hepatotoxicity - Primidone & phenobarbitol
What class of drugs is contraindicated in seizure patients
phenothiazines (Ace, chlorpromazine
2 purposes for hormone therapy
1. correct deficiency
2. obtain desired effect
When to use oxytocin
1."milk let down"
2.stimulate uterine contractionsie. induce labor or expel retained placenta
3. Birds - expel bound eggs
What is the diff btwn exogenous & endogenmous
exogenous are administered

endogenouse are naturally produced by body
Medical uses of estrogen
1.control urinary incontinence
2. induce abortion
Use of testosterone
1. control urinary incontinency
2. TX false pregnancy
3. Large animals - improve libido & fertility (esp stallions
4. control estrus in female dogs
Ex of androgens
1. testosterone
2. anabolic steriods
Use of anabolic steriods in vet
2. increase muscle mass
3. stimulate appetite -
4. Boost racinganimals
Example of controlled anabolic steriod
Winstrol - V

Class IV
Pituitary hormones for reproduction
1. FSH - follicle stimulating
2. LH - lutenizing stimulates ovulation
3. oxytocin - milk letdown
Where are progestins naturally produced

Name 2:
corpus luteum.

1. Ovaban
2. Depo-Medrol
Uses of MPA
medroxyprogesterone acetate "Depo-Medrol"

1.tx male behavior problems
2.suppress estrus in D&C
3. Tx Derm. conditions

Uses of megesterol acetate
aka Ovaban

1. control estrus
2. prevent vaginal hyperplasia
3.control unacceptable male behavior
4. tx dermatoses
Adverse side effects of estrogen therapy
1. temporary endometriosis which could lead to pyometra
2. Anemia
3. bone marrow suppression
4. cystic ovaries
2 examples of estrogens
1. DES oral
2. ECP injecxtion
Uses for progesterone
1. dog birth control
2. alleviate false preg
3. tx some dermatitis
4. inhibit spraying of cats
5. reduces territorial aggression in birds
What is the common thyroid dz in dogs

In cats
D- hypothyroidism

c- hyperthyroidism
Medical uses for thyroid therapy
1. replacement for inadequate thyrosin (T4) production
2. tx dermatoses
Clinical considerations of thyroid therapy
1. Assess thyroid fct w/ blood test
2. lifelong therapy
3. most common in older dogs
Examples of Levothyroxine (oral)
1. Soloxine
2. synthroid
Uses of insulin
1. tx diabetes melitus
Where is insulin naturally produced in teh body
Pancreas to decrease blood glucose levels by facilitating cellular uptake & storage of blood glucose
How are insulins catagorized
Duration of action:
Examples of short acting insulin
1. Regular insulin
2. semilente
Examples of intermediate acting insulin
1. NPH (isophane)
2. Lente
Examples of long acting insulin
1. PZI -protamine zinc insulin
2. ultra lente
A chronotropic agent affects what
rate of contraction
A inotropic agent affects what
force of contraction
Which type of drugs affect positive inotrophic activity

& what is their primary use
Cardiac glycoside (digitalis)

control congestive heart failure
Examples of cardiac glycoside (digitalis
1. digoxin
2. digitoxin
Define congestive heart failure
condition of an enlaarged heart w/ poor myocardium contractibility
Prostaglandins may not be used effectively to
Induce partrtion
Action of cardiac glycosides
Positive inotrophic - increase force of contraction & slow down the heart rate
Side effects of dgitalis
2. Diarrhea
3. anorexia
4. depressin
5. Muscle weakness
6. diff ambulating
7. visual disturbances
1. stupor
2. arrhthymias
3/ death
Uses for digitalis
1. Tx CHF
2. Atrial fibrillatin
3. supravnetricular tachycardia
Concerns when using digitalis
1. anticipate toxicity (foxglove
2. toxic to humans
3. metab. by liver & excreted by kidneya - so ck. those organs functions
4. Lots of drug interactions
Ex. of digoxin
1. cardoxin
2. lanoxin
When is digitoxin most likely to be used
Emergency only
What happens during right sided heart failure
Blood backs up into the liver, then kidneys try to conserve fluid
Drug interactions w/ digitalis
1. drugs reducing the effectiveness of by enhancing excretion
1. Butyl hyocine
2. reglan
3. tagament
4. diazepam

Drugs that increase dig. toxicity:
1. Antibiotics
2. amninoglycosides (neomycin
3. Tetracyclin
4. Sulfa drugs
5. Antiacids
6.anti-diarrhea - kayoline, pectolyn
Classes of anti-arrhythmia drugs
Class 1A- depress myocardial excitability (ex. quinidine & procainamide)
Class1B -decrease cell automaticity (lidocaine)
Class II- betablockers (propranolol)
ClassIv - Ca channel blockers
(diltiazem, verapamil
Adverse side effects of anti-arrhythmics
1. Hi risk patient messing . strong drugs
2. Allergic reaction
3.V&D to constipation
4. Dry mouth
5.incoordination & Other CNS (aka ataxia
6.atrial or ventricular standstill
7. acute & cumulative toxcities
What do Class 1A anti-arryth do

Depress myocardial excitability
(slow down the heart rate)

1. quinidine - ventricular arrythmias, ventricular tachycardia, atrial fib.

2. procainamide - PVC, ventricular tachyc & some atrial tachycardia
How do Class 1B anti-arryth work

Decrease cell automaticity by blocking Na into cells to prevent depolaarization

Lidocaine allows the cells to relax so it can repolarize

Mostly for ventricular tachy & control PVC
What concern might the vet have when using lidocaine in cats
Potentially sensitive to CNS effects - MONITOR
When might you use lidocaine w/ epinephrine

when not?
1. as local anesthesia ONLY - constrict vessesls to slow bleeding & keep lidocaine the the area

NO EPI WITH HEART PROBLEMS - predisposes heart to arrythmias
Action of Class II anti-arrhy

beta-blockers, reduce automaticity by blocking receptor sites for electrical impulses

Slow down HR & BP & decrease cardiac output

Ex: Propranolog "Inderal"
Uses of Class II anti-arrythmia
1. hypertension
2. venricular or atrial arryth.
3. cats w/ systemic hypertension & hyperthyroidism
Who should NOT take Class II beta-blockers
Uses for propranolol
1. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,
2. various atrial & ventricular arrhyth,
3.cats - hypertension & hyperthyroidism
Function of Class IV anti-arr
Ca channel blockers which depresses contractibility & reduces automaticity
IE slows the rate of contraction
What makes the heart contract & relax
flow of ions
Uses of Class IV anti-arr

Examples of Class IV anti-arr
1. tachycardia- esp ventricular
2. atrial fib in large dogs

Cardizem, Verapamil
When to use catecholamines
1. short term management of severe heart failure or anaphylaxis
Examples of catecholamines
1. epi
2,dopamine { Emergency
3.dobutamine {

**doxapram - respiratory stimulant gives you time to deal with
Uses for epinephrine
1. anaphylaxix
2. cardiac resusciation
3. asthma

NOT FOR CHRONIC HEART FAILURE b/c increases workload of heart, thus increasing chances for arrhythmias
Emergency catecholamine drugs

& how do they work

1. dopamine
2. dobutamine

1.Increase rate & force of contraction
2. Increase BP

Ltd to heart failure asso. w/ anesthetic emervencies or cardiac resus.
# types of diurectics
1. loop
2. osmotic
3. inhibit resorption of Na in Henle's loop - mainly maintenance
3 examples of diurectics
1.Furosemide (lasix) "loop"
2.Thiazides (Diuril) - more sustained eft than lasix but less dramatic
3.Mannitol- osmotic
When to use a loop diuretic
Furosemide -
1.increases urine excretion
2. increases renal bloodflow to increase filtratin& output

A. relief of cardiac & pulmonary edema
When to use thiazides
Diuril - for maintenance

Use lasix to deal with large accumulations then switch for more maintenance
How does mannitol work
"osmotic" limits tubular resorption of H2O by exerting hi osmotic pressure on kidney tubules

Drasm fluid out of extracellular space into blood & out of system

1. head trauma
2. interocular pressures
3.cerebral edema
4. acute oliguric renal failure
How do vasodilators work
open constricted blood vessels in tx of CHF

dilate arteries,veins, or both
Ex of vasodilators
1. hydralazine
2. nitroglycerine ointment
3. ACE Inhibitors(Angiotension Converting Enzyes
Action of ACE Inhibitors
Blocks ACE from converting angiotension1 to angiotension II so less vaso constriction & more vessel dilation increasing blood flow

ACE is the enzyme that converts
ACE Inhibitors are used in cases of


Enacard, captopril
Side effects of ACE inhibitors
1. lethargy
2. ex intolerance
3. hypotension
4. azotemia (nitro uremia)
Most common side effects of drugs that cause vaso-dilation
BP drops resulting in hypotension
Most common diuretic drug for CHF