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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What infectious diseases could cause thrombocytopenia?
Ehrlichiosis
RMSF
Babesiosis
Cytauxzoonosis
SLE (IMTP)
What infectious diseases could cause lameness/swollen joints/stiffness?
Bartonellosis
Ehrlichiosis (chronic)
RMSF
IMHA
Hepatozoonosis
Lyme
SLE (symmetrical polyarthritis)
What infectious diseases could cause icterus?
Ehrlichiosis
IMHA
Babesiosis
Mycoplasma (cats)
Cytauxzoonosis
What infectious diseases could cause anemia?
Bartonellosis (hemolytic)
Ehrlichiosis (non-reg)
RMSF (mild)
IMHA
Babesiosis (hemolytic)
Hepatozoonosis (non-reg)
Leishmaniasis (mild non-reg)
Mycoplasma (reg)
Cytauxzoonosis
SLE (IMHA)
What is the most common cause of vaccine failure?
maternal antibodies
What does the sensitivity of a test tell you?
did DISEASED animal test pos. or neg.?

concerned w/ FALSE NEGATIVES
What does the specificity of a test tell you?
did HEALTHY animal test pos. or neg.?

concerned w/ FALSE POSITIVES
What does the positive predictive value of a test tell you?
if dz prevalence is LOW: pos. result more likely to be FALSE pos.

if dz prevalence is HIGH: pos. result more likely to be TRUE pos.
When might you consider a ddx of Bartonellosis in a dog?
signs consistent w/ tick borne dz AND no response to Doxy
What are the clinical phases of ehrlichiosis?
acute (2-4 wks): fever, lethargy, lymphadenopathy, thrombocytopenia, slight leucopenia, non-reg. anemia

subclinical (40-120 d. +): appears normal

chronic (months to yrs): wt. loss, chronic lameness, poss. death
What are CBC/Chem findings w/ Ehrlichiosis?
thrombocytopenia: most common finding
- non. reg. anemia
- variable WBCs
- hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, proteinuria, icterus, ↑ liver enzymes, azotemia
Ehrlichiosis

a. dx
b. tx
a. serology, PCR
b. doxy x 3 wks
What are clinical signs/PE findings w/ RMSF?
- ACUTELY SICK
- lethargy, anorexia, depression, stiffness, pain, neuro signs, fever, lymphadenopathy, ocular signs, ecchymosis/petechia
RMSF

a. etiologic agent
b. where it lives
a. Rickettsia rickettsi
b. vascular endothelial cells --> vasculitis
RMSF

a. clin path
b. dx
c. tx
a. thrombocytopenia: most common
- leukocytosis
- mild anemia
- hypoalbuminemia, ↑ ALP
b. SEROLOGY, PCR (usually not needed)
c. - Doxycycline, chloramphenicol, or enrofloxacin for 2 wks PO are all effective
What are clinical signs/PE findings assoc. w/ IMHA?
weakness, lethargy, pale mm, icterus, pigmenturia, depression, splenomegaly, petechia, fever, systolic murmur, tachypnea, ocular signs, lameness
IMHA

a. clin path
b. dx
c. tx: uncomplicated
d. tx: complicated
a. anemia, spherocytes, anisocytosis, polychromasia, in-saline agglutination
b. CBC, Chem, U/A, retic count, rads, Coombs’ Test
c. Pred until PCV normal, aspirin, GI protectant (famotidine, sucralfate)
d. Pred until PCV normal, Azathioprine, aspirin, IV fluids, heparin, GI protectant, +/- transfusion
Bartonellosis

a. signs in dogs
b. signs in cats
c. dx
d. tx
a. fever, dyspnea, myocarditis, IMHA, polyarthritis, epistaxis, endocarditis, meningoencephalitis, lameness, anterior uveitis, lymphadenitis, vasculitis, normal?
b. fever, uveitis, renal dz?, lymphadenopathy, neuro dysfunction
c. serology, culture, PCR
d. azithromycin or rifampin
Babesiosis

a. type of agent
b. where it lives
c. transmission
a. protozoa
b. RBCs
c. ticks, dog bites
Babesiosis

a. signs/PE findings
b. clin path
c. dx
a. acute or chronic, lethargy, depression, pale mm, discolored urine, fever, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, icterus, normal?
b. hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, occ. leukocytosis, hyperglobulinemia, hyperbilirubinemia, ↑ liver enzymes, mild azotemia, met. acidosis
c. PCR (preferred), microscopy, serology (not good)
Hepatozoon

a. signs/PE findings
b. transmission
c. clin path
d. dx
a. fever (waxing & waning), wt. loss, mucopurulent ocular d/c, muscle atrophy, generalized pain, stiffness
b. ingestion of tick
c. moderate to severe leukocytosis, non-reg. anemia, low BUN, hypoalbuminemia, ↑ ALP, proteinuria
d. PCR (gold standard), rads (HO like lesions), muscle bx, microscopy (not good)
Leishmania

a. signs/PE findings
b. transmission
c. clin path
d. dx
a. lymphadenopathy, fever, splenomegaly, skin lesions (dry exfoliative dermatitis, ulcers, periorbital alopecia, etc.), ocular involvement (anterior uveitis, keratoconjunctivitis, diffuse blepharitis, etc.)
b. sandflies
c. mild non-reg. anemia, hyperglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia, proteinuria
d. microscopy, serology, PCR
Mycoplasma haemofelis

a. signs/PE findings
b. transmission
c. clin path
d. dx
a. lethargy, anorexia, icterus, pale mm, pica, normal?, fever, organomegaly, lymphadenopathy
b. fleas
c. reg. anemia, ↑ liver enzymes, hyperbilirubinemia, normal?
d. PCR, microscopy (not good)
Cytauxzoon felis

a. signs/PE findings
b. transmission
c. clin path
d. dx
a. acute febrile dz, access to outdoors, hx of ticks, lethargy, dyspnea, neuro dz, shock, dehydration, icterus or pallor, organomegaly, lymphadenopathy
b. ticks (related to Babesia)
c. anemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, ↑ liver enzymes, hyperbilirubinemia, hyperglycemia, pre-renal azotemia, acid-base disorders
d. PCR, microscopy (signet rings)
Lyme dz

a. signs/PE findings
b. etiologic agent
c. clin path
d. dx
a.anorexia, depression, fever, stiffness, joint pain & swelling
b. Borrelia burgdorferi: spirochete
c. usually normal
d. serology, PCR
Uncomplicated vs. Complicated IMHA
uncomplicated: patient eating & drinking, not tachypneic at rest, Hct > 15, retics > 3%, no agglutination, no intravascular hemolysis

complicated: patient NOT eating & drinking, tachypneic at rest, Hct < 15, retics < 3%, agglutination, intravascular hemolysis, fails to respond to Pred
SLE: 4 typical syndromes
IMHA
IMTP
glomerulonephritis
symmetrical polyarthritis
What are some important factors in development of auto-immune dz?
genetic
environmental
immunologic
infectious
What are some causes of fever?
bacteremia, viremia, systemic mycoses, rickettsial dz, massive tissue trauma, neoplasia, autoimmune or immune complex dz, drugs, inc. temp, inc. exercise, excitement, embolization, pain
What are the 3 parts of the infectious dz triangle?
genetics
nutrition
toxicity