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CANINE DISTEMPER
ETIOLOGY= PARAMYXOVIRUS
TRANSMISSION=BODY SECRETIONS, FOMITES
INCUBATION= 6-9 DAYS-MONTHS
SYMPTOMS=VARIED
RESP=EYES, NOSE.(PUP W/ RUNNY NOSE)
GI=V/D. DEHYDRATION
CNS=ADVANCED. MUSCLE VESICULATION=RHYTHMIC TWITCHING.
HARD PAD DISEASE
ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA
DIAGNOSES= NO RELIABLE TEST
SHORR STAIN-CONJUNTIVA SWAB
REPEAT BLOOD TITERS
INCLUSION BODIES@ NECROPSY
TX= SYMPTOMATIC, SUPPORTIVE
IV FLUIDS W/ KCL. DEX , ABS
ANTI-DIAHRREAL, IMETIC.
PROGNOSES= GOOD TO GRAVE
PREVENTION= VACCINE
IF 1ST- 7 DAYS. W/ PRIOR VX-36 HOURS
CANINE ADENOVIRUS 1/
INFECTIOUS CANINE HEPATITIS
ETIOLOGY= CAV1
TRANS= ORONASAL EXP TO ALL BODY SECRETIONS 14 DAYS THEN IN URINE.
INC= 5-9 DAYS
SYMPTOMS= GI, SWOLLEN LYMPHS, ABNORMAL BLEEDING, (DESSIMINATED INRAVASCULAR COAGULATION), CNS, OCULAR (BLUE EYE)
DIAG= PE-PETICHIA DT CLOTTING FACTORS , BLOOD- LIVER,KIDNEY,COAG. UA-PROTEINURIA OR BILIRUBINURIA DT KIDNEY DAMAGE
TX= SUPPORTIVE, SYMPTOMATIC
PROG= POOR-GRAVE
CANINE ADENOVIRUS 2/
INFECTIOUS TRACHEAL BRONCHITIS (KENNEL COUGH)
ET= CAV2, BORDATELLA, PARINFLUENZA, MICOPLASMA
TRANS= RESPIRATORY SECRETIONS, FOMITES
INC-5-9 DAYS (2-5)
SYMPTOMS= RESPIRATORY, COUGH
CAN BECOME COMPLICATED
DIAG=SYMPTOMS
TX=SYMPTOMATIC- ABS FOR COMPLICATED.
DX=GOOD
PREVENT-VX FOR BORD
CANINE PARVOVIRUS
ET= PARVO VIRUS-SPEC SPECIFIC
TRAN=FECAL-ORAL FOMITES. LIVES 3-6 MONS IN ENV.
SYMPTOMS= BLOODY DIAHRREA.LOW GRADE FEVER (MAY SPIKE) DEHYDRATION, ANOREXIC, WEAK, THIN
DIAG= HX, PE, LAB: CBC, PARVOCITE,CHEM, ELECT.
TX= STAGGER TX- IV FLUIDS : LRS/55 CC 50%DEX/ 20MEqKCl/ 1ML B-VIT.ANTI-DIAHRHEAL, ANTI-IMETIC. ABS. ISO: BLEACH 1:30.
PROG= VARIABLE
PREVENTION= VACCINE
CANINE CORONA VIRUS
ET= CORONA VIRUS
TRANS= ORO-FECAL
INC=24-48 HRS
SYMPTOMS- DIARRHEA
DIAG= NONE
TX- SUPPORTIVE,SYMPTOMATIC
PROG- GOOD TO EXCELLENT
PREVENTION= VX- NOT USED
CANINE LEPTOSIROSIS
USU IN AGRI AREAS-ZOONOTIC
ET=BACTERIAL, LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS
TRANS= THRU MOCUSOSA, ABRADED SKIN-REPLICATES IN KIDNEYS.
DIRECT CONTACT W/ URINE
VENEREAL, PLACENTAL TRANSFER
BITE WOUNDS
INGESTION OF INFECTED MEAT
FOMITES-SHED IN URINE FOR MONTHS AFTER RECOVERY.
SYMPTOMS=PERACUTE=DEATH
SUBACUTE=CHRONIC
A. ACUTE DEATH
B. FEVER, SHIVERING,SORE MUSCLES
C. V/D SHOCK
D COAG-PETECHIA,HEMATEMESIS, EPISTAXIS, MELENA
E. RENAL, HEPATIC,MENINGEAL
F. COUGHING, DYSPNEA, CONJUNTIVITIS, RHINITIS, TONSILLITIS
MAIN ORGAN INFECTED= KIDNEYS, LIVER 2ND. SPINAL CORD(MENINGITIS), EYE(UVEITIS), FERTILITY ISSUES.
INC= 5-15 DAYS
DX= INC WBC.< PLATELETS. INC BUN,CREATININE. BLOOD TITER, CULTURE IN URINE.
TX= S/S. 2-3 ABS.
VX- BACTERIN- ONLY GOOD 3MOS. USU NOT GIVEN DT REACTIONS
HEMATEMESIS

MELENA

EPISTAXIS
VOMITING OF BLOOD

PASSAGE OF BLACK TARRY STOOL

NOSE BLEED
RABIES
ET= RHABDOVIRUS
TRAN= SALIVA VIA BITE
INC- 15-50 DAYS
A.PRODROMAL- HOURS-3 DAYS
B.EXCITATIVE= 1-7 DAYS
C.PARALYTIC
SYMPTOMS
A.RESTLESS SLT FEVER MYDRIASIS(SLUGGISH CORNEAL REFLEX)
B. AGGRESSIVE, PHOTOPHOBIA, VOICE CHANGE DT LARYNGEAL PARALYSIS
C. DROOLING , STRABISMUS (WANDERING EYE)
DX= HX, POSTMORTEM BX
TX= NONE
ZOONOTIC!!!!
PANLEUKOPENIA
WITHOUT WHITE CELLS/ KITTY PARVO/ KITTY DISTEMPER
ET- FEL PARVOVIRUS
TRANS= ORAL-FECAL, FOMITES, ALL BODY SECRETIONS
INC= 3-7 DAYS
CLASSIC= > 6 WKS.V/D WEAKNESS, ANOREXIA, FEVER
< 6 WKS= CEREBELLAR HYPOPLASIA- PRENATATAL EXP.
DX= PE HX CPC PARVO SNAP
TX= SUPPORTIVE
PROG= GRAVE 50-90 MORTALITY
PREVENTION= VACCINE
FELINE URI/ RESPIRATORY DISEASE COMPLEX
ET=USU VIRUS: HERPES 1(RHINOTRACHEITIS) CALICI (ORAL ULCERS), CHLAMYDIA PTICCITISI, BORDATELLA (RARE)
TRAN= AEROSOL DROPLET
DIRECT, FOMITES
INC= 3-7 DAYS
SYMPTOMS= REPEATED SNEEZING, TEARING, CONJUNTIVITIS, NASAL D/C
HERPES= ASYMPTOMACIC CARRIER STATE
TX= S/S ISO ABS FOR 2ND INFECTION.
PREVENTION= VX ONLY FOR HERBES I-RHINO, CALICI
FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS
ET= ONE OF CORONAVIRUSES
FECV OR FIPV-80-90 %CATS INFECTED- 95% HEALTHY
MY BE GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY
TRANS= FECAL-ORAL
MUTANT OF FECV
REPLICATES IN GI MUCOSA, MUTATES IN CAT
POSSIBLYIN UTERO
LIVES 3-7 WEEKS OUTSIDE HOST
INC= VARIABLE, VIREMIA 1 WK
POST EXPOSURE
SYMPTOMS
EARLY- NON SPECIFIC
WET, EFFUSIVE- FIBRIN RICH FLUID- INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
DRY FORM
DX= HX, PE, FLUID ANALYSIS, BLOODWORK, POSTMORTEM
TX= SUPPORTAVE
PROG= FATAL. USU 5-7 WKS, MAY BE 6-8 MONTHS
PREVENTION= VX? QUARANTINE.
FELINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA/
MYCOPLASMA HAEMOFELIS
ET= RICKSETTIAL DISEASE-BLOOD PARASITE-HEMOBARTONELLA FELIS. ATTACHES TO RBC'S. IMMUNE RESPONSE DESTROYS RBCS
TRAN= BLOOD BORNE PATHOGEN, FLEAS, TICKS, BITES, IV INJ, TRANSFUSION
INC= 1-4 WEEKS
SYMPTOMS= ANEMIA, PALE, WEAK
MAY EAT DIRT, LITTER
DX= CBC, PCV, PE, PCR TEST
TX= DOXYCYCLINE 3 WEEKS. BLOOD TRANSFUSION PCV<15
CORTICOSTEROIDS
PROG= EXCELLENT TO GUARDED, MAY REMAIN CHRONIC
PREVENTION= LIMIT EXP TO OUTDOOR CAT.
MOST LIKELY TO BE INFECTED= 4-6 YRS, HX OF FIGHTING, INCOMPLETE VX, FELV +
FELINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS
ET= RETROVIRUS- ONCOGENIC.
TRAN= SALIVA, NASAL SECRETION
IN UTERO, BLOOD TRANS, MILK
INC= MAY BE TRANSITORY, CAT REJECTS VIRUS.
IF NOT- SPREADS FROM LYMPHOID TISSUE TO BONE MARROW- REPLICATES- PERSISTENT VIREMIA OR LATENT INFECTION. CAN BE HIDDEN FOR YEARS. RESISTANCE IS AGE RELATED- OLDER BETTER.
IN FEW WEEKS, SPREADS TO SALIVARY GLANDS AND RESP EPI CELLS- SHED IN ENVIRONMENT
VIRUS CAN REPLICATE AND CAUSE DISEASE IN
1 LYMPHOCYTES
2 MUCOSAL CELLS)INTESTINE, PANCREAS)
3. BLOOD CELLS- RD AND WHT
4 RESP AND BLADDER CELLS
SYMPTOMS=
EARLY- KITTY COLD GINGIVITIS DIAHHREA
LATER- CHRONIC 2ND INF, ANEMIA
CHRONIC- CANCER ESP LYMPHATIC
LEUKEMIA
DX= HX, FUO, AUO, CHRONIC UNRESPONSIVEILLNESS, FELV TESTING, IFA, ELISA > 9WKS
TX= S/S TREAT 2ND INFECTIONS, SYMPTOMS
DONT PUT IN ISO.
PROG= VARIABLE- USU 3.5 YRS
PREVENTION- VX, REDUCE RISK FACTORS.
FELINE FELV TESTING
IF ELISA POSITIVE
A. WAIT 3 WEEKS, RETEST OR
B. RUN IFA
IF NEG- RETEST IN 3 WEEKS
IF POS= DEFINITE POS
FELINE IMMUNOFICIENCY VIRUS
ET= RETROVIRUS IN NO CAL
TRAN= SALIVA VIA BITES, MOTHER TO KITTENS
INC=
INITIAL ACUTE-LENGTH IS VAR
ASSYMPTOMATIC LATENT-MOS-YRS
CHRONIC TERMINAL-LIFETIME IMMUNODEFICIENT STATE
SYMPTOMS
ACUTE-LYPHADENOMEGALY, FEVER, ADR, BACTERIAL INF
LATENT-NONE
CHRONIC-STOMATITIS, GINGIVITIS, URI, ENTERITIS, SKIN INF, FUO, ANEMIA, CNS, INFECTIONS
DX- HX, ELISA TEST, WESTERN BLOT TESTS
TX= S/S
PREVENTION- LIMIT EXP
AVERAGE AGE = 5 YRS
VACCINE DEFINITION
SUSPENSION OF KILLED, LIVING OR ATTENUATED CULTURES OF MICRO-ORGANISMS USED AS ANTIGENS TO PRODUCE IMMUNITY
HANDLING
STORE IN FRIDGE
DISCARD 1 HR AFTER MIXING
ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE
KILLED
PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS INACTIVATED BY CHEMICALS
ATTENUATED/ MODIFIED LIVE
LIVING AVIRULENT ORGANISMS- MODIFIED BY A SERIES OF PASSAGES THRU UNNATURAL HOSTS IE MOUSE BRAIN. LOSES ABILITY TO PRODUCE DISEASE
DOG VACCINES
CORE-6-8 WKS, EVERY3-4 WKS TILL 16 WKS
CISTEMPER
HEPATITIS-CAV2
PARAINFLUENZA
PARVO
RABIES
NON CORE
BORDATELLA-IN ONLY ONCE
LYME-AT 12 WKS
CORONA
CAT VACCINES
CORE-6-8 WKS EVERY 3-4 WKS TILL 12 WEEKS
RHINOTRACHEITIS
CALICI
PANLEUKOPENIA
RABIES
NON CORE
CHLAMYDIA
FELV-9WKS
FIP-16 WKS
FIV
GIARDIA
RINGWORM
EXOTIC VACCINES
RACCOON- K9 DHLPP
FEL DISTEMPER, URI
KILLED RABIES
FERRET- FERVAC-D
KILLED MEASLES VACCINE(K9)
RABIES
BIRDS
PSITTACINE POX
PACHECO'S VIRUS
POT-BELLIED PIGS
RESPIFEND= BORD, ERYSIPELOTHRIX, PASTURELLA
GESTAFEND= PARVO, LEPTO
SEIZUE ACTIVITY
CAUSES
EXTRACEREBRAL- HIGH FEVER, POISON, HYPOGLYCEMIA, HYPOCALCEMIA, HEAT STROKE, ORGAN MALFUNCTION, HYPOXIA
CEREBRAL= EPILEPSY, TUMORS, HEAD TRAUMA, CVA, ABSCESS, HYDROCEPHALUS, CONGENITAL DEFECTS
DURATION- FEW SECONDS-15 MIN (STATUS EPILEPTICUS)
SEIZURE THRESHOLD- HIGHER IS LESS LIKELY TO SEIZURE
EPILEPSY
CHRONICALLY RECURRING CEREBRAL DYSRYTHMIA ORIGINATING FROM AN ABNORMAL GROUP OF NEURONS (FOCUS) HAVING FREQUENT BURSTSOF ABNORMAL ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY WHICH WILL THEN SPREAD TO NEIGHBORING CELLS AND RESULT IN A SEIZURE.
MOST COMMON 1-4 YRS.
IF <1 YR- WORM BURDEN, CONGENITAL BRAIN DEFECT
SYMPTOMS= INTERMITTENT SEIZURES FOR NO UNDERLYING REASON.
PHASES
PRE=AURA
DURING=ICTUS
AFTER=POST ICTUS
DX= HX, PE, BLOODWORK TO R/O OTHER CAUSES, MRI, CSF TAP.
TX- IF > 1/MO OR 30MIN/YR-
OUTCOME= CONTROL NOT CURE
PANOSTEITIS
INFLAMMATORY DISEASE OF THE LONG BONES
OCCURS IN YOUNG MALE DOGS: SHEP, DOBIE AND MIXES USU 6-12 MOS. LATER IN LARGER BREEDS CAN BE UP TO 7 YRS
CAUSES= STRESS, HEREDITY, HYPERESTROGENISM
SYMPTOMS= ACUTE ONSET LAMENESS W/O TRAUMA. MAY STOP THEN REOCCUR IN DIFF LIMB.
DX= RADS- LACY LOOK TO MEDULLARY CANAL, THICKENING OF ENDOSTIUM- WHITE LINE.
PE, ORTHO EXAM
TX= MAY BE SELF LIMITING WITHIN 2-3 MOS. NSAIDS
OUTCOME=EXCELLENT
DEGENERATIVE MYELOPATHY
PROGRESSIVE DEGENERATIVE CONDITION OF THE SPINAL CORD
OCCURS IN OLDER SHEP AND MIX
SYMPTOMS- WEAKNESS, PARALYSIS OF HIND LEGS
DX- R/O DYSPLASIA, DISC DS
TX- STEROIDS EARLY ON
ANIMOCAPROIC ACID
CARE FOR INCUMBENT ANIMAL.
OFTEN EUTHANISED
CERVICAL VERTEBRAL INSTABILITY/ WOBBLERS SYNDROME
OCCURS IN DANES, DOBIES, RHOD RIDGEBACKS, LG FAST GROWING BREEDS.
CAUSE- DIET (INC PROTEIN,CA)
TRAUMA, DISC DISEASE, VERTEBRA OR CARTILAGE DEFORMITY
SYMPTOMS
HINDLIMB INCOORDINATION
UNSTEADY GAIT IN FRONT
RIGID NECK
PAIN- WITH OR WITHOUT
DX= XRAYS
TX= STEROIDS, REST, MUSCLE RELAXER, SX
OUTCOME= DEPENDS ON SEVERITY OF DAMAGE
OSTEOCHONDRITIS DESSICANS
CARTILAGINOUS FLAP FORMED IN JOINT DT DRYING OUT OF CARTILAGE.
OCCURS IN FAST GROWING BREEDS, YOUNG MALES 6-9 MOS. GIANT BREEDS 12-18 MOS
OFTEN SHORT LEGGED AND BARREL CHESTED BREEDS
CAUSES= EXCESS WEIGHT, CONGENITAL, HERIDITARY TRAUMA, OVERACTIVITY, COMPENSATION
SYMPTOMS= LAMENESS W/ JOINT PAIN, DECREASED ROM, ALTERED GAIT, NON WEIGHT BEARING
DX= HX, PE, RADS, ARTHROGRAM
TX- SOME RESOLVE, OTHERS SX
NSAIDS, PAIN MEDS
INTERVERTEBRAL DISC SYNDROME
OCCURS- DACHSUNDS, PEKES, CORGIS- EXTRUSION(RUPTURE)
LG BREED= PROTRUSION
CAUSE= INJURY TO DISC
SYMPTOMS=
HYPERESTESIA- INC SENSITIVITY AND PAIN
LOSS OF CONSCIOUS PROPRIOCEPTION
LOSS OF VOLUNTARY MOTOR FUNCTION
LOSS OF SUPERFICIAL PAIN SENSATION
LOSS OF DEEP PAIN SENSATION
DX= HX, PE, NEURO EXAM, RAD, MYELOGRAM
TX= CARE FOR RECUMBENT PATIENT.
SX= DECOMPRESSION VIA LAMINECTOMY
PT
DERMATITIS
INFLAMMATION OF THE SKIN
CAUSES-
EXTERNAL IRRITANTS
BURNS
ALLERGY- CONTACT, INHALED (ATOPY)
INFECTION-BACTERIAL-PYODERMA'
INFESTATION- PARASITIC
SYMPTOMS-USU BELLY, TAIL BASE, FACE
1. PRURITIS-ITCHY
2. ERYTHEMA- REDDENED
3. 2ND INFECTIONS- PUSTULES
4. ALOPECIA- HAIR LOSS
5. SCABS, CRUSTS, SCALES
CHRONIC- THICKENED CONVOLUTED GREY SKIN
ACUTE- RED, ANGRY MOIST.
DX= SKIN SCRAPING, DTM, STAIN, BX, ALLERY TEST
HX, DIET
TX- SYSTEMIC - STEROIDS, ABS ANTIHISTAMINES
TOPICAL
OUTCOME- BETTER FOR ACUTE
ACRAL PRURITIC NODULE/
LICK GRANULOMA
LICK GRANULOMA
CAUSE- CONSTANT LICKING
TX- REDUCE CAUSE, ANIMAX, SILVADENE
EOSINOPHILIC GRANULOMA/
RODENT ULCER
CHRONIC DERMATOSIS ON LIPS, ORAL MUCOSA, ABD OF CATS
UNK CAUSE- IMMUNE MEDIATED?
SYMPTOM- RED, ULCERATIVE LESIONS AROUND LIPS, FACE
ON ABD=PLAQUES
DX- PE, R/O SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA
TX- STEROIEDS, CLEANSE
E COLLAR
OUTCOME- TENDS TO RECUR SEASONALLY
FELINE ACNE
COMEDONES (BLACKHEADS) ON LIPS, CHIN FACE OF CATS
CAUSE- HORMONES, BACTERIA, PLASTIC FEEDING DISHES
TX- CLIP AND CLEAN
PROG- GOOD BUT OFTEN CHRONIC
SEBORRHEA
CHRONIC NON INFLAMMATORY SKIN CONDITION- MORE OR LESS SEBUM.
PRIMARY= NO OTHER SKIN CONDITION
OLEOSA- OILY- SPANIELS
SICCA=DRY- SETTERS, SHEPS, DOBIES
CAUSES
1. ABNORMAL LIPID SKIN CONTENT
2. THYROID DISORDER
3. FATTY ACID DEFICIENCY
4. MALABSORPTION OF FATS
5. 2ND TO OTHER SKIN PROBLEM
MILIARY DERMATITIS
CAUSE- ALLERGIC RX TO ???
SYMPTOMS= BUMPY CRUSTY LESIONS OVER DORSAL AND SACRAL REGIONS, PARTIAL ALOPECIA, THINNING, BROKEN HAIR, PRURITIC.
DX= SYMPTOMS, SKIN BX, ALLERGY TESTING
TX= STEROIDS, FLEA CONTROL, TOPICAL
OUTCOME- GOOD LIKELY TO RECUR
OTITIS
INFLAMMATION OF THE EAR
EXTERNA- MOST COMMON
CAUSES- WAX, EAR MITES, FB, ALLERGY
MEDIA- 50% OF O EXT HAVE MEDIA
CAUSE- EXT OF O EXTERNA, NOSE/THROAT/SINUS INF, FB, TUMOR, TRAUMA
DX- OTO EXAM, SKULL RADS FOR TYMPANIC BULLA
TX= ABS STEROIDS DRY CLIANING OF EAR IF EAR DRUM RUPTURED, TREAT SOURCE.
O INTERNA= INNER IAR- SEMI CIRCULAR CANAL AND COCHLEA ASS W/ BALANCE AND HEARING
CAUSE- INFECTION, EXT OF OTIC DS, TRAUMA, TUMOR
DX- SYMPTOMS, RADS, NEURO EXAM, MRI
SYMPTOMS- PAIN, CIRCLING HEAD TILT LOSS OF BALANCE AND HEARING. R/O OLD AGE VESTIBULAR SYNDROME
TX= ABS STEROIDS, PAIN MEDS
EAR MITES
OTODECTES CYNOTIC
BLACK TARRY EXUDATE FROM EARS
HIGHLY PRURITIC
DX- EAR MITE CHECK
TX= FRONTLINE SPRAY UNDER EAR
MILBEMITE, ACCAREXX
LIKELY REINFESTATION
FOXTAILS
SHAKING
HEMATOMAS SECONDARY TO
FLY STRIKE
MORE COMMON IN ERECT EARS
DRY CRUSTY BLOOD AROUND EDGE OF PINNA BECOMES ERODED.
TX- CLIP AND CLEAN USE SOLUTION NOTSCRUB. AB SALVE FLY REPELLANT
AURAL HEMATOMA
POCKET OF BLOOD- PARTIAL OR COMPLETE
CAUSE- HEAD SHAKING DT OTITIS, EARMITES, FB
TX-
1. ALLOW TO RESORB
2. ASPIRATE
3. MAMMARY TEAT DRAIN
4. SURGERY
OUTCOME- BEST WITH SX
TREAT PREDISPOSING CONDITION
CORNEAL ULCER
PERFORATION OF THE CORNEA
INFECTION-USU BACTERIAL
TRAUMA
KCS- HARDENS
POST OP- ESP KETAMINE
ENTROPIAN-CHOW SHARPEI
ECTROPIAN- BASSET HOUNDS'
SYMPTOMS- PAIN AT FIRST
BLEPHAROSPASM, RUBBING EYE
DX- FLOURESCEIN STAIN
TX- AB OINTMENT, 3RD EYELID FLAP SX. PAIN MEDS
NO CORTICOSTEROIDS
OUTCOME= GOOD BUT CAN BE SLOW TO HEAL
CATARACTS
DEHYDRATION/ CRYSTALLIZATION OF THE LENS
LOOKS LIKE CLOUD, STEAM
CAUSE- OLD AGE, CONGENITAL, DIABETES, OCULAR INJURY, INFECTION
SYMPTOM- CLOUDY IRREGULAR SPOT IN THE EYE
DX- R/O NUCLEAR SCLEROSIS
TX- 1. NOTHING
2. SX REMOVAL
OUTCOME- PERMANENT UNLESS REMOVED. MAY IMPAIR VISION
LENTICULAR/ NUCLEAR SCLEROSIS
NORMAL AGING- BLUE HAZE
DOES NOT IMPAIR VISION
RETROBULBAR ABSCESS
POCKET OF PUS BEHIND GLOBE OF EYE.
SYMPTOM- EYE BULGES OUTWARD, DRAINING FISTULA UNDER EYE. PAINFUL, MAY HAVE DIFFICULTY OPENING MOUTH. IMPAIRED EYE MOTILITY
CAUSE= INFECTION, FOXTAIL, TOOTH ROOT ABCESS, EXTENSION OF NASAL SINUS INFECTION
DX= PE, ASPIRATION OF PUS
TX- DRAIN THRU ROOF OF MOUTH
AB, EYE OINTMENT
OUTCOME= GOOD W/ TX
KERATITIS CONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA/ KCS
INFLAMMATION OF THE CORNEA AND CONJUNCTIVA AS A RESULT OF DRYNESS, INADEQUATE TEAR PRODUCTION
CAUSE- GENETIC, CHRONIC CONDITIONS, EYELID DEFORMITY, OLD AGE, SULFA DRUGS
BREEDS- BERNESE, SWISS MOUNTAIN DOGS, PYRANESE
SYMPTOMS= THICK DISCHARGE, RED, MAY BE PAINFUL, SCARRED, CORNEA LOOKS HAZY IN ADVANCED STAGES
DX- SCHIRMER TEAR TEST
TX- OPTIMMUNE, CYCLOSPORINE, CLEANING, ARTIFICIAL TEARS
OUTCOME- CAN BE MANAGED
CONJUNCTIVITIS
INFLAMMATION OF THE CONJUNCTIVA
CAUSE- INFECTION, URI, ALLERGY, TRAUMA, FB, IRRITATION,
SYMPTOMS- OCULAR DISCHARGE, RED SWOLLEN PAINFUL CONJUNCTIVA
DX- HX, PE
TX- CLEANING, AB, +/-STEROIDS
GLAUCOMA
INCREASED INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE CAUSED BY INADEQUATE DRAINAGE OF AQUEOUS HUMOR DUE TO NARROWED IRIDOCORNEAL ANGLE OR OVERPRODUCTION OF VITREOUS HUMOR.
CAUSE- BREED PREDISPOSITION- BOXER, BEAGLES, BOSTONS, COCKERS
PRIMARY VS SECONDARY
GLAUCOMA, CONGENITAL
SYMPTOMS- PAIN, BLEPHAROSPASM, CLOUDY CORNEA, DILATED UNRESPONSIVE PUPIL, SCLERAL REDNESS, PART OR COMPLETE LOSS OF VISION, BUPTHALMOS( SWOLLEN BULGING EYE)
DX- INTRA OCULAR PRESSURE, BY DIGITAL PRESSURE OR TOMOMETER
TX- USU REFERRED
MIOTICS-CONTRACT PUPIL, IRIS AND DECREASE IOP
CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS- SLOWS PRODUCTION OF HUMOR
OSMOTIC DIURETIC- DRAWS FLUID OUT OF CELLS
OUTCOME= VARIED
CANINE REPRODUCTION
MATING STAGES
MOUNTING/EJACULATION- FE WILL ONLY ACCEPT IN TRUE ESTRUS. ONLY TAKES A FEW SECONDS
TIE- BULBOUS GLANDIS SWELLS.UP TO 45 MIN.
ESTROUS CYCLE-EVERY 6 MONTHS
1. ANESTRUS-QUIET STAGE, LONG
2. PROESTRUS- UTERUS PREPARES FOR OVULATION, VULVA SWELLS, BLEEDING 2-6 WKS
ESTRUS- OVULATION, FE ACCEPTS MALE, LESS OR NO BLEEDING. BREED AT 4TH AND 11TH DAY. 3-6 WKS
METESTRUS- PROGESTERONE INCREASES, ESTROGEN DECREASES, WHITISH DISCHARGE
PROGESTERONE PERPETUATES PREG.IF NOT PREG- ANESTRUS.
EACH STAGE AVERAGES 3 WEEKS EXCEPT ANESTRUS
FELINE REPRO
SEASONALLY POLYESTRUS- FALL AND SPRING
INDUCED OVULATORS
IF NO CONTACT WITH MALE- CYCLE LASTS 5-10 DAYS
OUT OF HEAT THEN BACK IN
IF MAKES CONTACT- REMAINS IN HEAT UP TO TEN DAYS
CAN BE IMPREGNATED BY SEVERAL MALES.
LORDOSIS- HEAD DOWN, BUTT UP
MATING- 5-10 SECONDS
FEMALE BECOMES AGRESSIVE, PERFORMS POST-COITAL ROLL
PYOMETRA
PUS FILLED UTERUS
OLDER DOGS AND CATS NOT SPAYED 4-8 WKS POST ESTRUS
CAUSE- HORMONALLY MEDIATED
SYMPTOMS= FEVER, DEPRESSION, PU/PD, DEHYDRATION, +/- DISCHARGE, TENDER ABD
OPEN- PUS DISCHARGE FROM VULVA
CLOSED-NO DISCHARGE. MORE DANGEROUS, CAN GO INTO SEPTIC SHOCK
DX- HX, PE, CBC, RAD, US. NO CYSTO!!
TX- OVH
PROSTAGLANDIN THERAPY IF BREEDING BITCH
ECLAMPSIA
MILK FEVER
LACTATING FE BECOMES HYPOCALCEMIC W/I 7-10 DAYS OF LACTATION
CAUSE- LOW CALCIUM. LITTER SIZE NOT A FACTOR
SYMPTOMS= FEVER, WEAKNESS, TREMBLING, CONVULSIONS
DX- BLOOD CA. R/O INFECTION
TX- IV CALCIUM, REMOVE OFFSPRING,
MASTITIS
TRAUMA TO MAMMARY GLANDS FROM NURSING OR RETAINED MILK
OCCURSIN DOGS, CATS, FERRETS AND RABBITS
SYMPTOMS= INFLAMMED, RED, SWOLLEN PAINFUL MAMMARY GLANDS. CAN PROGRESS TO SYSTEMIC INFECTION. WARM TO TOUCH, REFUSE TO NURSE
DX- HX, PE, CBC
TX- ABS HOT COMPRESS, TREAT SEPTICEMIA, REMOVEOFFSPRING.
W/TX- 7-14 DAYS RECOVERY
MAMMARY TUMORS
MORE COMMON IN DOGS
IF SPAYED BEFORE 1ST HEAT-5%
AFTER 1 HEAT-8%
AFTER 2- 26%OCCURENCE RATE
UNKNOWN CAUSE
DX- HX, PE, FNA, BX, CHEST RADS
TX- SX, CHEMO, PAIN MEDS
OUTCOME- EUTH. PAINFUL POST SX
MONORCHID/
CHRYPTORCHID
ONE/BOTH TESTICLES NOT DESCENDED.
CAUSE- GENETIC?
CAN CAUSE TESTICULAR CANCER, PROSTATE DS.
TX- SX
BRUCELLOSIS
ET- BACTERIA- BRUCELLA CANIS
ZOONOTIC
TRAN- ALL MUCOUS MEMBRANES, FOMITES
INC
A.CONTAMINATION BY ABORTION OR COPULATION
B. MACHROPHAGES ATTACK AND TRANSPORT TO LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND GENITAL TRACT
C.1-4 WEEKS BACTEREMIA DEVELOPS- LASTS 6-64 MONTHS
D. MAY LOCALIZE IN
1. INTERVERTEBRAL DISKS
2. EYES
3.KIDNEY
SYMPTOMS= REPRO DISORDERS
DX= BLOOD TITERS- ABS, BLOOD, URINE AND SEMEN
TX- REMOVE FROM BREEDING, ABS FORLIFE, COMBO THERAPY
PREVENTION- TEST ALL BREEDERS
CYSTITIS
INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER WALL
CAUSES- SINGLE OR COMBINED
1. BACTERIA-E.COLI, STAPH, STREP
A. PSEUDOMONAS
B. URINE STAYING IN BLADDER
C. GLUCOSE
D. TRAUMA TO BLADDER IE SX
E. OBSTRUCTED URETHRA
SYMPTOMS
HEMATURIA, DYSURIA, POLLAKIURIA, OMNIURIA, FRUITY URINE ODOR. RESTLESS, CRYING.
DX= HX, PE, U/A. C&S
TX- FLUIDS AFTER UA
IF PERSISTENT
CAUSES- BLADDER TUMOR, UROLITHS,
DX- CONTRAST RADS, ULTRASOUND
TX- SX
HIGHLY MALIGNANT- MET TO SPINE- TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA.
SYMPTOMS=
INTRACTABLE CYSTITIS, PROSTATIC CANCER, PROSTRATIC HYPERTROPHY (NEUTER CORRECTIVE)
DX- RADS, US, BX, STONE ANALYSIS
TX- SX, PAIN MEDS, DIET
TENDS TO RECUR
LOWER URINARY TRACT DISEASE (LTUD) WAS FUS
ALWAYS AN EMERGENCY!!!!!!
LOWER URINARY TRACT DISEASE OF CATS THAT CAUSES URETHRAL OBSTRUCTION. CAUSES MAY BE SINGLE, MULTIPLE, INTERACTING OR UNRELATED.
SIG- 99% NEUTERED MALE CATS 3-8 YRS OLD
CAUSES
OBSTRUCTIVE MATERIAL
A. PLUGS- GELATINOUS W/ CELL DEBRIS, BACTERIA, EPITHELIALS
B. UROLITHS- CRYSTALS
FACTORS
DIET
FEEDING METHOD- DONT FREEFEED
FEED WET FOOD
WATER INTAKE
ACIDITY LEVEL
STRUVITE CRYSTALS LIKE BASIC
CA OXYLATE LIKE ACIDIC
URINE PH
MG CONTENT
TRAUMA TO SPINE, BLADDER
HX OF BACTERIAL CYSTITIS
SYMPTOMS
URGENCY TO URINATE
HARD BLADDER- UREMIA
FREQUENT TRIPS TO BOX
CRYING, STRAINING
DX- HX, PE, UA RADS BLOOD
TX- RELIEVE OBSTRUCTION- CATHETER.
OPEN VS CLOSED
ABS, PAIN MEDS, STEROIDS IF REALLY BAD, FLUIDS,
PERINEAL URETHOSTOMY FOR RECURRING OR STUBBORN CASE
RENAL DISEASE
RENAL DISEASE= PRESENCE OF RENAL LESION OF ANY SIZE, DISTRIBUTION OR CAUSE
RENAL FAILURE= KIDNEY NOT ABLE TO FUNCTION TO SUSTAIN ORGAN LIFE. NEED 25% NEPHRONS
END STAGE=COMPLETELY GONE. SCAR TISSUE OR ABNORMAL LESIONS
UREMIA=URINE IN BLOOD-TOXICITY.BUN AND CREATININE HIGH, ELECTROLYTES OFF. WILL SHOW SIGNS. 911!!
AZOTEMIA= INCREASE OF UREA NITROGEN AND PROTEIN IN BLOOD. NO CLINICAL SIGNS
CAUSES
PRE RENAL- DECREASED RENAL PERFUSION DT HEART, SHOCK,DIURETICS, POISON
RENAL= STRUCTURAL OR FUNCTIONAL ABNORMALITY OF THE KIDNEY. TUMOR, INFECTION, CONGENITAL, STONES, TRAUMA, OLD AGE
EXTRA (POST) RENAL= CAUSED BY SOMETHING PREVENTING URINE FROM LEAVING THE BODY. URETHRAL OBSTRUCTION, STRICTURE, UROLITHS.
ARF- ACUTE RENAL FAILURE
CRF=CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE
SYMPTOMS= PU/PD, DEHYDRATION, WEAKNESS, VOMITING, ANOREXIA, UREMIA
DX= BLOOD( INCREASED BUN,CREATININE) , URINE. US, KIDNEY BX. BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE ACIDOSIS. URINE CULTURE
ACUTE RENAL FAILURE
CATS USU 8 OR OLDER
MOST COMMON CAUSE OF DEATH IN CATS
ET- IMMUNOLOGIC, TUMOR, CANCER, NEPHROTOXINS, INFLAMMATORY OR INFECTIOUS CONDITION. HEREDITY, OLD AGE
SYMPTOMS= PU/PD,VOMITING WITH UREMIA, DEHYDRATION. WEAK, ANOREXIC, DIAHRREA, ANEMIA- LESS ERYTHROPOETIN PRODUCED- RBCS NOT PRODUCED.
BLEEDING ULCERS IN STOMACH- UREMIA
SG LOW.
CHANGES IN ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. LOW K- HEART
ORAL ULCERS FROM URINE TOXINS- FRUITY AMMONIA SMELL
LOW TEMP
BLOOD
PCV-ANEMIA
WBC-INFECTION
SERUM-HIGH BUN AND CREATININE
ELECTROLYTES OFF
URINE
US-SHAPE AND SIZE OF KIDNEYS, CYSTS STONE?
DX- GENERALIZED NEPHRITIS, GLOMERULO NEPHRITIS, PYELONEPHRITIS
TX= IV FLUIDS
ABS, ANTACIDS, DIET-MOD PROTEIN. BLOOD TRANS IF ANEMIC, EPOGEN.
KIDNEY TRANSPLANT - MUST BE FREE OF INFECTION, NOT TOO SICK.
DAILYSIS.
CLIENT EDUCATION!!
PNEUMONIA
INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNG TISSUE
MOSTLY DOGS, YOUNG AND OLD
CAUSES= INF ORGANISMS, USU BACTERIAL. INHALATION/ASPIRATION, HYPOSTATIC (SETTLING OF BLOOD)
PRE-DISPOSING FACTORS INC. PRIMARY INF, VOMITING, REDUCED CONCIOUSNESS, THORACIC TRAUMA, DRUGS, CONTAMINATED ENDO TUBE, PULMONARY DS.
CATS WITH FELV, FIV
SYMPTOMS= ANOREXIA, FEVER, DEEP LOW COUGH, INC WBC, DYSPNEA, SEROUS OR MUCOPURULENT NASAL D/C, OPEN MOUTH BREATHING.
CAN BE ACUTE OR CHRONIC
STABLE=TX AT HOME
UNSTABLE= HOSP
CRITICAL= O2 THERAPY
DX= HX, RADS, TRANSTRACHEAL WASH, BRONCHOSCOPY, FECAL TO R/O PARASITES IN PUPS.
TX= ABS, SUPPORTIVE CARE, NEBULIZER. COUPAGE. NO COUGH SUPPRESSANTS!!
OUTCOME= HIGHLY VARIABLE.
FELINE ASTHMA
ALLERGIC RX CAUSING BRONCHIOSPASMS
CAUSE= PARASITIC, SEASONAL, STRESS
SYMPTOMS= COUGHING, WHEEZING, INC PHLEGM. CAN HAVE OPEN MOUTH BREATHING
DX= AUSCULTATION-MOIST CRACKLING, RADS(DONUT), CBC. R/O OTHER DS. ENDOSCOPY, TRANSTRACHEAL WASH
TX- STEROIDS, ANTIHISTAMINES, BRONCHODILATORS, REDUCE STRESS
OUTCOME= CHRONIC BUT MANAGABLE
PNEUMOTHORAX
ACCUMULATION OF FREE AIR IN THE PLEURAL CAVITY CAUSING LUNGS TO COLLAPSE.
CAUSES- PENETRATING CHEST WOUNDS, EXCESSIVE POSITIVE PRESSURE VENTILATION.
OPEN VS CLOSED
SYMPTOMS- NONE TO DYSPNEA, DIMINISHED BREATH SOUNDS, CYANOSIS, RESP ARREST, INC RESONANCE TO PERCUSSION. ABD BREATHING
TX= HX, AUSCULTATION, RADS.
TX= THORACOCENTESIS, CHEST DRAIN. REST, O2 THERAPY
OUTCOME= VARIABLE
HEMOTHORAX
HYDROTHORAX
PYOTHORAX
CHYLOTHORAX
ALL DECREASE LUNG CAPACITY-SPACE OCCUPIED BY FLUID
BLOOD-TRAUMA
WATER-CHF, DROWNING, CIRCULATORY, SHOCK
PUS-INFECTION, CHEST WOUND
INTESTINAL LYMPH-TRAUMA, NEOPLASIA
SYMPTOMS= RAPID SHALLOW BREATHING, ABD BREATHS,TIRE EASILY, WEAK
DX= AUSCULTATION, RADS, THORACOCENTESIS
TX= ABS. O2, TREAT EXISTING CONDITION
BRONCHITIS, TRACHEITIS, LARYNGITIS
INFLAMMATION FROM INF, IRRITATION, ALLERGIC RX,
SYMPTOMS- COUGH, SNEEZE, WHEEZE, INC RESP SECRETIONS
DX- HX, PE, RADS- ELICIT COUGH.TT WASH, R/O HEART DS
TX= ABS, COUGH SUPPRESSANT, STEROID, REST, HUMIDIFIER
OUTCOME- MAY BE CHRONIC OR RECURRING
PULMONARY EDEMA
ACCUMULATION OF EXTRAVASCULAR FLUID IN THE ALVEOLI OF THE LUNGS RESULTING IN INC CAPILLARY PERMEABILITY.
CAUSES=
CARDIAC- INSUFFICIENCY
NON CARDIAC- SMOKE INHALATION, ELECTROCUTION, ALLERGIES, ANAPHYLAXIS, HIGH ALTITUDE, HEATSTROKE, FLUID OVERLOAD
SYMPTOMS= RESP DISTRESS, ANXIETY, CRACKLING LUNG SOUNDS. CATS- OPEN MOUTH BREATHING. COUGH- DRY OR FOAMY AND BLOODY.ABNORMAL HEART SOUNDS. WON'T LAY DOWN.
DX= HX, PE, AUSCULT LUNGS AND HEART, RADS- DV OK. DO NOT STRESS
TX= O2 THERAPY, DIURETICS, ABS, RESTRICT SODIUM, REDUCE STRESS, NO IV FLUIDS, CAN TAP CHEST IF FREE FLUID
OUTCOME- VARIABLE
TRACHEAL COLLAPSE
RINGS OF TRACHEA WEAKEN- COLLAPSE AND STENOSE. YORKIES, TOY BREEDS, OLDER DOGS.
SYMPTOM= GOOSE HONK COUGH- MAY PRESENT CHOKING. CAN BECOME HYPERTHERMIC
DX= HX, PE, RADS, TRACHEAL PALPATION,
TX= RESTRICT ACTIVITY, USE HARNESS. SX AVAILABLE
OUTCOME= CHRONIC BUT MANAGEABLE.
COMPENSATORY ACTIVITY
IN RESPONSE TO LOW BLOOD VOLUME/FLOW
BODY CONSERVES BLOOD TO RAISE HR
1. CRONOTROPIC ACTIVITY- RATE CAN BECOME TACHYCARDIA
2. BLOOD VESSELS CONSTRICT- HYPERTENSION
3. KIDNEYS RETAIN SALT, FLUID. INC LOAD ON HEART
OVER TIME- HEART ENLARGES- CARDIOMEGALY
MUSCLES STRETCH- HYPOTENSION
FLUID BACKS UP TO INTERSTITIAL SPACES- EDEMA
CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE
INABILITY OF HEART TO ACT AS EFFECTIVE PUMP. VENTRICLES CANT PUMP BLOOD TO ARTERIAL CIRCULATION. DECREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT, INC BLOOD PRESSURE, LEADS TO COMPENSATORY ACTIVITIES AND EVENTUALLY HEART FAILURE.
TYPES
LEFT SIDED- BLOOD FROM LUNGS CANT GET PAST L VENTRICLE
RT SIDID= BLOOD FROM BODY CANT GET PAST RT VENTRICLE
BILATERAL- BOTH SETS
CAUSES- CONGENITAL OR ACQUIRED VALVE ABNORMALITY, HW DISEASE, CARDIOMYOPATHY( COMMON IN CATS, LG BREED DOGS- MUSCLE OF HEART. DOG-MUSCLES THIN AND WEAKEN, CAT-THICKEN), CONGENITAL HEART DEFECT, HYPERTHYROIDISM, RENAL FAILURE( BOTH CAUSE HYPERTENSION)
SYMPTOMS= HYPOTHERMIC, WEAK OR PULSE DEFICIT, HEART MURMER. MUSCLE ATROPHY
RS-PITTING LIMB EDEMA, ASCITES(FREE FLUID IN ABD), HEPATOMEGALY, ICTERUS
LS= RESP DISTRESS, COUGING, DYSPNEA, PULMONARY EDEMA, EXCERCISE INTOLERANCE
DX= AUSCULT, RADS, EKG, US
TX= MODIFY COMPENSATORY ACTIVITY. DIET AND EXCERCISE
LOOP DIURETICS- PREVENT ABSORBTION OF FLUID AT LOOP OF HENLE
DIGOXIN- SLOWS RATE/VOLUME, ENALAPRIL-DILATES ARTERIES AND VEINS.
NITROGLYCERIDE PASTE- DECREASES BP
L SIDED HF- BRONCHODILATORS
PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS(PDA)
POODLES COLLIES POMS SHEPHARDS
THE FETAL VESSEL FAILS TO CLOSE
BLOOD FLOWS FROM AORTA TO PULMONARY ARTERY AND RT VENTRICLE.
SYMPTOMS= MACHINERY MURMER, LACK OF ENERGY, CYANOSIS AS O2 REQUIREMENTS INCREASE. "LAZY PUP" CAN DIE 2-6 WEEKS UP TO 18 MOS
DX= AUSCULT, US
TX= SX
OUTCOME= GOOD FOR SX
DEAD IF NO TX
PULMONIC STENOSIS
NARROWING OF PULMONARY SEMILUNAR VALVE BETWEEN PULMONARY ARTERY AND RT VENTRICLE.
SYMPTOMS= NONE AT FIRST XCEPT MURMER ON RT SIDE. THEN RS CHF SIGNS, FATIGUE AND DYSPNEA
DX= AUSCULT, US, EKG
TX= VALVULOTOMY
OUTCOME= W/O SX MAY DIE BY 3
AORTIC STENOSIS
NEWFIES SHEPS
NARROWING OF AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE BETWEEN LEFT VENTRICLE AND AORTA
SYMPTOMS= MURMER ON L SIDE, MAY FAINT
DX, TX SAME AS PULMONIC STENOSIS
VENTRICULAR SEPTIC DEFECT
ENGLISH BULLDOG
HOLE OR TEAR BETWEEN VENTRICLES
SYMPTOMS- NONE WITH MURMUR OR LS CHF
DX= AUSCULT, US EKG
ST- NONE IF NO SYMPTOMS
SX IF NEEDED-BYPASS
OUTCOME= GOOD W/ SX
PERSISTENT AORTIC ARCH
CONGENITAL- BRANCHES OF AORTA CIRCLE THE ESOPHAGUS
SYMPTOMS= VOMITS SOLIDS AFTER EATING
DX= HX, RADS, ESOPHOGRAM, ENDOSCOPY
TX= FEED GRUEL ELEVATED. AT RISK FOR ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA
OUTCOME= GOOD W/ SX
CIRCULATORY REVIEW
1ST HEART SOUND-LUB- CLOSING OF AV VALVES DURING SYSTOLE(ACTIVE CONTRACTION)
2ND SOUND- DUB- CLOSING OF AORTIC AND PULMONARY VALVES DURING LATE SYSTOLE, EARLY DIASTOLE(RELAXATION AND DILATION)
RT AV VALVE- TRICUSPID
L AV VALVE-MITRAL TWO CUSPS
AORTIC AND PULMONARY- 3 CUSPS
CARDIAC CYCLE- ONE HEART BEAT
VENTRICLES RELAX, DEC PRESSURE
SEMILUNAR VALVES IN PULMONARY ARTERIES AND AORTA FORCED SHUT
AV VALVES OPEN, BLOOD ENTERS VENTRICLES
CONTRACTION IMPULSE ACTS ONATRIA- FILLS VENTRICLES
VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION
AV VALVE CLOSE, SEMILUNAR VALVES OPEN
ATRIAL DIASTOLE- FILLS ATRIA WITH BLOOD FROM VENA CAVA
VENTRICULAR DIASTOLE
ANEURISM
SAC FORMED BY DILATION OF WALL OF VESSEL OR HEART, WALL THINS AND DILATES.
CIRCULATORY ROUTE
BLOOD FROM BODY> VENA CAVE> RT ATRIUM> RT AV VALVE> RT VENTRICLE> RT SEMI-LUNAR VALVE> PULMONARY ARTERY> ALVEOLI> PULMONARY VEINS> L ATRIUM> L AV VALVE> L VENTRICLE> L SEMI LUNAR VALVE> AORTA> BODY
PROPTOSIS
COLLAPSED EYE