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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 stages of perception
1. stimulation
2. organization
3. interpretation-evaluation
4. memory
5. recall
process by which you become aware of objects, events, and people through your 5 sense
it is an active, not passive process
stage one: stimulation
senses are stimulated through selective perception, and you expose yourself through selective exposure
stage two: organization (three types)
organize what your senses pick up:
rules: proximity/physical closeness; similiar things/people belong together; things occuring at the same time belong together; contrasting things don't belong together

schemata: mental templates that help your organize your memory

scripts: type of schema, general idea of how an event should unfold: eating at a restaurant
stage three: interpretation-evaluation
subjective, greatly influenced by your experiences, needs, wants, values, beliefs of how it should be
influenced by your rules, schemata, and scripts (and gender)
ex: women view others more positively than men
stage four: memory
preceptions and their interpretations-evaluations are stored so you can retrieve them later
stage five: recall
likely to recall info that is consistent with your schema, vice versa
implications of the model of perception
shortcuts to remember, but don't always help bc they made help your forget things inconsistent with your schemata
what your recollect will be highly subjective
schematas and scripts are created on the basis of your own cultural beliefs: ethnocentricity
perceptual processes
self-fulfilling prophecy
implicit personality theory
perceptual accentuation
self-fulfilling prophecy
a prediction that comes true because you act on it as if it were true
ex: thinking the girl at the register is rude/nice and speaking to her as if she were rude/nice then in return she is rude/nice
pygmalion effect
teachers had students that were supposed to do exceptionally well but were actually late-bloomers, then they did well
implicit personality theory
the system of rules that tells you which characteristics go with which other characteristics
ex: someone is intelligent because they are energetic and eager but there's no logical reason to assume that
halo effect
a function of the implicit personality theory; if you believe a person has some positive qualities you're likely to infer that she also has other positive qualities
also a reverse effect
perceptual accentuation
leads you to see what you expect or want to see
ex: poor children guess the size of coins to be larger than the rich children; hungry people need fewer visual cues to see food objects and terms than people who aren't hungry
what comes first has the most influence: primacy effect
what comes last (or most recently) has the most influence: recenty effect
ex: more positive: intelligent, industrious, impulsive, critical, stubborn, envious
less positive: envious, stubborn, critical, impulsive, industrious, intelligent
the tendency to maintain balance among perceptions or attitudes
attribution theory
the process you go through in trying to understand people's behaviors, particularly the reasons or motivations for the behaviors, it helps you improse order and logic to better understand the possible causes of the behaviors you observe. also helps you make predictions about what people are likely or unlikely to do
in the case of your own behaviors
attribution processes
consensus: similarity with others
consistency: similarity over time
distinctiveness: similarity in different situations
controllability: behavior control
do other people behave in the same way as the person on whom i'm focusing? is it in accordance with the majority?
ask if this person repeatedly behaves in this way
ask if this person reacts in similar ways in different situations. yes-low distinctiveness, the behavior has inner cause
ask if this person could control their behavior or not
ex: being late for 2 reasons: subway broke or couldn't stop reading
self-serving bias
a mechanism designed to preserve self-esteem that seems pervasive throughout the general population
ex: taking credit for the positive and denying the negative, the positive was your doing the negative was out of your control
tendency to single out one or two obvious characteristics of a person and attribute everything that person does to those characteristics
ex: sally has difficultly forming relationships bc her parents were alcoholics
fundamental attribution error
occurs when you overvalue the contribution of internal factors and undervalue the influence of external factors. tendency to conclude that people do what they do because that's the kind of people they are not because of the situation
ex: sarah is late, you assume it's because she's irresponsible not because of traffic
ways to increase accuracy in interpersonal perception
analyze perceptions: recognize your cognitive role
check your perceptions
reduce uncertainty
increasing cultural sensitivity: be sensistive to cultural differences
perception checking
further explore the thoughts and feelings of the other person not proving your initial perception