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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is stuttering?
having difficulty moving smoothly from one word to another to communicate a message
Is stuttering a continuum or a discrete behavior? why?
continuum: have more and less fluent movements, varies
What is the difference between dysfluency and disfluency?
dysfluency- disorder; synonomous with stuttering
disfluency- general disruption in the flow of speech
What qualities differentiate between dysfluency and disfluency?
type, frequency, and amount of struggle to get speech out
What key components would you include in a definition of stuttering?
behaviors (repetions and prolongations), emotions (thoughts on their speech), loss of control of speech, and others' perceptions
What is a stuttering moment?
the time when a person stutters (time before and after the stutter are fluent)
What is a stuttering event?
the disfluent piece in the speech
What are secondary coping behaviors?
behaviors (speech and non-speech) that accompany or accessorize non-fluent speech
How are secondary coping behaviors established?
the stutterer realizes some behavior is linked to stuttering event so they keep doing it (operant conditioning)
Why are secondary coping behaviors maintained?
because of intermittment reinforcement
What is cluttering?
fluency disorder characterized by a rapid and/or irregular speech rate, excessive disfluencies (tend to be repetitions), and often other symptoms such as language problems or phonological errors and attention deficits
True or false: People who clutter have no idea they are cluttering and stutters are aware of their stuttering.
What is propositionality?
the meaningfulness/importance of a message, thought, or idea
What is the mean age of stuttering? median age?
mean = 5
median = 4
When is generally the age of onset of stuttering?
before age 6
Can stuttering be acquired in adults?
yes, as a result of neurological or psychological trauma
What is the male/female ratio for stuttering at the preschool level? first grade? fifth grade?
preschool- 2:1
first- 3:1
fifth- 4:1
What is the prevalence (number who have disorder) of stuttering?
.5 or 1% of a given population
What is the incidence (number of cases who have ever stuttered in a lifetime) of stuttering?
about 5% of population
True or false: Children who stutter do not typically show delays in speech and language development.
False: tend to show delays in these areas
What are some concomitant disorders of children who stutter?
-articulation/phonological disorder
-language/learning disability
-subtle linguistic impairments
-intellectual disabilities/Down's syndrome
-voice disorder
True or false: Those who stutter are typically more depressed, nervous, and/or anxious than the average population.
false; no different, but some have poor self-concepts and low self-esteem (emotionally different)
Stuttering runs in families and is at least partially governed by genetic factors. This is based on: (3 other factors)
-elevated rate of stuttering in first-degree relatives
-existence of stuttering across generations
-more monozygotic twins stutter than dizygotic twins; 75% of the time if one mono twin stutters, the other will too
What is the adaptation effect?
progressive decrease in stuttering that occurs across multiple oral readings or repetitions of the same material
What are some of the key features of the adaptation effect?
-most adaptation occurs between the 1st and 2nd repetition/reading
-children and adults show the effect
-adaptation occurs with word lists, reading passages, to some extent, spontaneous speech (if they say same thing each time)
-5 repetitions/readings is usually enough to see the effect
-decreased stuttering is also associated with decreases in muscle tension and improvements in physiological activity
-during repeated readings, you may see the consistency effect
Does the adaptation effect work for everyone? What does this suggest?
No, suggests:
-they have severe motor problems
-have strong emotional or physiological basis for stuttering
What is the consistency effect?
occurrence of stuttering on the same words or sounds across repeated readings
What are some explanations for why the adaptation effect occurs?
-an extinction or reduction of anxiety
-a reduction of the fear of speaking
-reductions in the propositionality of the reading material
-greater ease and facilitation of the motor plan and serial ordering of speech movements
Why would a person be more fluent in conversation than in reading?
avoidance, clever to avoid amount of speech, situational
Why would a person be more fluent in reading than in conversation?
better with structure, less social aspect
Why would a person stutter about the same in reading or conversation?
-motor-based issue
-context doesn't matter
-consisten pattern of stuttering