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51 Cards in this Set

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The cerebellum monitors signals from where? Resulting in what?
-from the cortex
-resulting in movements in the periphery
What does the cerebellum compare? AND where does it send corrective signals?
-intended and actual movements
-send corrective signals to cortex
What can damage to the cerebellum cause?
profound disturbances of movement (i.e., ataxia of limbs, ataxia of speech movements)
What structure connects the 2 hemispheres of the cerebellum (like the corpus callosum)?
vermis
The cerebellum consists of 2 hemispheres including what 3 basic structures?
-gray and white matter (arbor vitae)
-intra-cellular nuclei (deep nuclei)
-cerebellar peduncles
What runs horizontally in the cerebellar cortex?
folia (folium - fold) - smaller than the folds in the cerebral cortex
About how many neurons does the gray matter of the cerebellar cortex contain? AND cerebral cortex?
-cerebellar - 50 billion
-cerebral - 22 billion
True or false: The 2 hemispheres of the cerebellum affect movements on opposite sides of the body.
False: same side of the body - ipsilateral (left side lesion -> left side affected)
What are the 3 masses of gray matter (deep nuclei) in the cerebellum?
-dentate nucleus (largest)
-interpositus nucleus (emboliform and globose nucleus)
-fastigial nucleus
What function do the peduncles serve in the cerebellum?
the "information highways" of the cerebellum
What are the 3 peduncles of the cerebellum? AND what do they connect the cerebellum to?
-superior cerebellar peduncle (cerebellum to midbrain)
-middle cerebellar peduncle (cerebellum to pons)
-inferior cerebellar peduncle (cerebellum to medulla oblongata)
From which cerebellar peduncle(s) do(es) all information leave?
superior cerebellar peduncle
From which cerebellar peduncle(s) do(es) all information come in thru?
-middle cerebellar peduncle
-inferior cerebellar peduncle
What are the horizontal divisions of the cerebellum?
-anterior lobe
-posterior lobe
-flocculonodular lobe
What are the vertical divisions of the cerebellum?
-vermis
-intermediate cerebellum
-lateral cerebellum
What are the functional subdivisions of the cerebellum? AND where are they located?
-spinocerebellum (vermis + intermediate parts of cerebellar hemispheres)
-cerebrocerebellum (lateral zone of the cerebellar hemispheres)
-vestibulocerebellum (flocculonodular lobe)
What type of input does the spinocerebellum receive?
-visual and auditory
-spinal and trigeminal input (sensory info from trunk and proximal portion of limbs)
What nucleus does the spinocerebellum give output to?
fastigial nucleus
What is the spinocerebellar responsible for?
-the coordination of rapid motor activity (--intended movements of cortex are compared with the actual performance in the periphery [muscle --corrects any "errors" by making adjustments)
-regulation of muscle tone, coordination of skilled voluntary movement
-feed forward mechanism
What is the feed forward mechanism?
anticipates and adjusts movements
Where does the spinocerebellum-intermediate zone project to?
to the interposed nuclei (sensory info), then to the red nucleus in midbrain (involved in motor coordination), then to the ventrolateral thalamic nucleus in the diencephalon
What input does the lateral zone of the cerebrocerebellum receive?
-receives info about intended movements from the cerebral cortex via the pontine nucleus (nucleus in pons)
-receives somatosensory info (position and rate of movements)
-computes the contribution that various muscles will have to make to perform the intended movement
Where is output of the lateral zone of the cerebrocerebellum sent?
-computations are sent to the dentate nucleus (deep cerebellar nucleus)
-dentate nucleus sends info to the vetrolateral thalamus, which projects to the cortex
What does the cerebrocerebellum consist of?
the lateral zone of each hemisphere
Where does the cerebrocerebellum receive input from?
corticopontine input
What is the cerebrocerebellum involved in?
-timing and precision of movements
-planning and initiation of voluntary activity
-control of independent limb movements, especially rapid, skilled movements
Where is the flocculonodular lobe located?
at the caudal end of the cerebellum
Where does the flocculonodular lobe receive input from?
from the corticopontine and vestibular system
Where does the flocculonodular lobe of the vestibulocerebellum project axons to?
to the vestibular nucleus
What is the function of the flocculonodular lobe of the vestibulocerebellum?
postural reflex, balance, eye movement
What does the vestibulocerebellum consist of?
flocculonodular lobe
What are the 3 distinct layers of neurons of the cerebellum?
-molecular layer
-purkinje layer
-granular layer
Describe the molecular layer of the cerebellum.
-multiple layers
-outer stellate and basket cell bodies (inhibitory)
Describe the purkinje layer of the cerebellum.
-middle layer
-single layer
-purkinje cell bodies (inhibitory)
Describe the granular layer of the cerebellum.
-multiple layers
-inner layer
-granule and golgi cell bodies (inner stellate)
What are the 2 types of fibers that make up the afferent pathways of the cerebellum?
-mossy fibers
-climbing fibers
Where do the afferent pathways enter the cerebellum via?
the inferior and middle cerebellar peduncle
Describe the mossy fibers afferent pathway to the cerebellum.
-excitatory input to the cerebellum (to the purkinje cells)
-enter the granule cell layer and synapse on the dendrites of granule cells
-granule cells then send their axons up to the molecule layer, where they end in a T and run parallel to the surface (called parallel fibers)
-parallel fibers synapse on the huge dendritic arrays of the purkinje cells
What are the 2 mossy fiber pathways?
-vestibulocerebellar pathways (flocculonodular lobe)
-spinocerebellar pathways (vermis)
Where does the final output for the cerebellum come from?
deep nuclei
What is the second main type of input?
climbing fibers
What type of input do the climbing fibers provide to the purkinje cells?
excitatory
Describe the climbing fibers pathway to the cerebellum.
-they go straight to the purkinje cell layer and snake up the purkinje dendrites, like ivy climbing a trellis
-each climbing fiber associates with only one purkinje cell, but when the climbing fiber fires, it provokes a large response in the purkinje cell
-the purkinje cell compares and processes the varying inputs it gets, and finally sends its own axons out thru the white matter and down to the deep nuclei
Information that comes into the cerebellum is __________, going out the information is ____________.
-into= excitatory
-out= inhibitory
What are types of efferent axons?
-purkinje cell axons
-inerneurons:
--golgi cell axons (granule cell layer)
--inner and outer stellate and basket cell axons (molecular layer)
--they branch down into the purkinje cell layer
What type of information do efferent pathways carry from the cerebellum?
all inhibitory
What does injury to the midline (vermis region) cerebellar structures typically produce?
-postural sway and tremor, and difficulties with locomotion
-movements are characteristic of those of a drunk
What does injury of later (lateral zone of hemispheres) structures typically produce?
-loss of coordination of the limbs-Dyssynergia, often with large amplitude and low-frequency tremor
-inaccuracy in range and direction of movement-Dysmetria
-Dysdiadochokinsia
What is dyssynergia?
loss of coordination of the limbs
What is dysmetria?
inaccuracy in range and direction of movement
What is dysdiadochokinesia?
an irregular pattern of alternating movements