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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
sleep is an ___, ___ process
active, multiphase
brain goes in and out of ___ and ___ during sleep
REM and non-REM
during sleep these are two of the things that occur in the body
slow renal production and digestion
Non-REM sleep
initiated by the withdrawl of neurotransmitters from the reticular formation and by the inhibition of arousal mechanisms in cerebral cortex
REM sleep
characterized by desynchronized, low voltage, fast activity that occurs about every 90 minutes beginning after 1 to 2 hours of non-REM sleep
five sleep disorders
insomnia, upper airway resistance syndrome, obstuctive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, parasomnias
insomnia
inability to fall or stay asleep
Insomnia may be
transient, lasting a few days, and related to travel across time zones, or it may be caused by acute stress
Long-term insomnia is associated with
drug or alcohol abuse
Upper airway resistance syndrome is characterized by
repetitive increases in resistance to airflow within the upper airway with snoring and brief arousals from sleep and daytime somnolence
Upper airway resistance syndrome is not associated with
complete obstruction of airway
In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) the obstruction is caused by
the soft palate, base of the tongue, or both collapsing against the pharyngeal walls because of decreased muscle tone during sleep
Symptoms of OSA include
loud snoring, a decrease in oxygen saturation, fragmented sleep, chronic daytime sleepiness, and fatigue
Potentially fatal systemic illnesses often associated with OSA include
hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, nocturnal cardiac dysrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is the most
severe form of disordered breathing during sleep and is associated with severe morbidity and very high mortality
Systemic complications associated with obesity hypoventilation syndrome include
pulmonary hypertension and ischemic heart disease
parasomnias
unusual behaviors occuring during sleep
Examples of parasomnias
sleep walking, night terrors,rearranging furniture, eating food, violent behavior, and enuresis
Strabismus
the deviation of one eye from the other when the person is looking at an object
Strabismus is caused by
weak or hypertonic muscle in one of the eyes
Treatment of strabismus
patch the good eye so the weak one can workout and get stronger
Amblyopia
a reduction or dimness of vision for unknown reasons
scotoma
a circumscribed defect of the central field of vision
nystagmus
an involuntary unilateral or bilateral rhythmic movement of the eyes
cataract
a cloudy or opaque area in the ocular lense
the incidence of cataracts increases with
age as the lense enlarges
cataracts cause
decreased visual acuity, blurred vision, glare, and decreased color preception
normal intraocular pressure (IOP)
12-20 mm Hg
galucoma is characterized by
intraocular pressure above the nomral pressures
obstruction to the flow of the aqueous fluid leads to
increased IOP and glaucoma
glaucoma causes
peripheral and central visual impairment and loss, which may lead to blindness
open-angle glaucoma
obstruction to outflow of aqueous humor at trabecular meshwork of Schlemm canal; myopia is a risk factor
narrow-angle galucoma
forward displacement of iris toward cornea with narrowing of iridocorneal angle and obstruction to outflow of aqueous humor from anterior chamber
acute angle-closure glaucoma
acute closure of iridocorneal angle with sudden rise in intraolular pressure; producing nerve pain and visual distrubances
myopia
nearsightedness