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12 Cards in this Set

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Describe the infant's circadian rhythm?
none apparent at first. Polyphasic - sleep or awake. Eventually consolidation occurs, only to phase delay with sleep onset getting later and later until its out of whack with day/night again. Eventaully it will get back in sync with day/night and there it will stay.
Describe the total sleep time of the different age groups.
Infants -16hrs reducing over time
4yrold - 12hrs
13yr old - 9hrs (although only get 7.5)
20-60yr olds - 9 hrs
60+ reduces from 9 hrs, but time in bed not asleep increases.
What about sleep onset latency, does this change with age?
Not much, only after 70. Also in adol there might be an increase b/c of sleeping in at weekends and getting out of phase.
What changes are there in wakefulness after sleep onset with age?
significant changes
very few in childhood/adol
Increases in 40-50s.
In 50s 4 or 5 a night
In 60s 6 a night.
What percentage of time is spent awake in bed between the under 40s and the over 70s?
only 1-2% in the under 40s
15% in the over 70s. (good sleepers)
How does stage 1 sleep change with age/
stage 1 has a monotonic increase with age. this is particularly evident in the lighter sleep of older people and the increase in awakenings.
How does stage 2 sleep change with age?
it doesn't change much - still 50% of total sleep period.
How does stage 3 sleep change with age?
increases up to early adulthood and then drops off
How does stage 4 sleep change with age?
monotonic decrease from adol onwards. More pronounced in males. declining amount of delta brain waves so that stage 4 epochs are no longer 50% delta wave and are therefore stage 3. Between 20-30 stage 4 sleep drops by half.
How does REM sleep change with age?
Big changes. at birth50% REM. By adulthood only 20% REM.
describe Adolescent sleep pattern
Stanford sleep camp identified that adols need 9.5hrs a night, but often only get 7.5. Sleep time seems to decrease between 12-14 by 1 or 2 hrs. could be due to increased social activities, homework etc, and phase delaying of circ rhythm
What is the significance of REM in infancy?
its possible that REM acts as a brain stimulant at a time when not a lot of stimulation is being obtained. REM stimulates the cerebral cortex. it drops off as child becomes able to engage with the world or maybe it drops off as the cerebral cortex grows and inhibits REM.