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154 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are some things that an environmental manager should be able to do?
-Be able to understand, measure and monitor environmental processes within biophysical systems
-understand, monitor and value the human uses and values of the biophysical environment
-understand human impacts on the biophysical environment
-be able to monitor environmental change
-understand the tools available to manage/remediate environmental impacts
-be able to work within the social, political and economic framework
Environmental management should
-resolve conflicts between different people/groups
-be proactive
involve the community
-integrate iwth land use planning
What is planning?
• Planning to meet community needs/wants
• Planning to achieve sustainability
• Planning to regulate land use and
What are some different things that require planning?
-open space
What are some factors that influence planning?
-enviro impacts
-safety issues
-social/cultural factors
-economic factors
-location and transport
What are the changes over time periods in planning in the last 50 years?
• 1950s Time of Hope
• 1960s Time of Changes
• 1970s Time of Reflection
• 1980s Time of Retreat
• 1990s Time of Contradictions
• 2000s Time of Growth
What are the five stages of planning in australia?
1. Resources used with little discretion
2. Introduction of planning and resource
3. Land and water users forced to change
4.Calls for integrated planning approaches
5.Integrated planning and environmental
What is environmental planning?
Planning that takes into account geological,
ecological, economic, health and social
What are some issues that can come up in planning?
-community opposition
-different viewpoints
-aesthetic values vs benefits
-issues within the community
-not in my backyard
-cost vs benefit
What percentage of GHG emissions is the built environment responsible for approximately?
Define sustainability
Ability of earth’s various systems, including
human cultural systems and economies, to
survive and adapt to changing
environmental conditions indefinitely.
What is ecologically sustainable development?
“Using, conserving and enhancing the
community’s resources so that ecological
processes, on which life depends, are
maintained, and the total quality of life, now
and in the future, can be increased.”
By what percentage did vertebrate species decline betweeen 1970 and 2005?
Definition of ecological footprint
Amount of biologically productive land and water
needed to supply a population with the renewable
resources it uses and to absorb or dispose of the
wastes from such resource use. It measures the
average environmental impact of populations in
different countries and areas.
What is the state of the environment report and what did the 2006y one detail?
It is a management tool to help governments and policy makers make informed policy and strategy decisions.
It details
-pop growth/urban expansion
-increased per capita consumption of energy
-slow uptake of renewables
What are some features of a sustainable community?
-near mass transport
-people orientated
-work, shops, homes, recreation all in walking distance
What are some things sustainable communities do?
-acknowledge ecological limits
-seek social sustainability and quality of life
-use holistic approaches
-adopt alternative environmental pardigms
-are equitable and just
-stress the importance of community
-reflect on social and environmental costs
What is an urban village?
A mixed use urban area with medium density housing, workplaces, shops and public transport.
Promotes energy efficiency, public transport and social interaction.
What are the pros of urban villages?
-Reduced air pollution
-reduced urban sprawl
-sense of community
What are the cons of urban villages?
-personal/interpersonal and situational challenges
What are some positive effects of compact settlements and smart growth?
-Reduced urban sprawl
-directs growth to certain areas
-protects ecologically sensitive areas
-develops areas that are more environmentally sustainable
What are some of the principles of smart growth?
• Compact building design
• Range of housing opportunities and choices
• Walkable neighbourhoods
• Community and stakeholder collaboration
• Distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place
What are the advantages of urban consolidation?
-city already established
-use of existing infrastructure
-may lead to
-potential urban land being conserved
-a decline in infrastructure cost per dwelling
-a more sustainable city
What are some disadvantages of urban consolidation?
-detached house mentality
-problems associated with noise and loss of privacy
What is statutory planning?
The regulation of land uses to avoid conflicts
What is Victoria's main piece of planning legislation?
Planning and Environment Act 1987
Which department administers the planning and environment act 1987?
Department of Planning and Community Development under direction of minister of planning
What does the DPCD address?
planning schemes, permits and administration
What are the objectives of the planning and environment 97 act?
1. To provide for the fair, orderly, economic and
sustainable use, and development of land.
2.To provide for the protection of natural and man-made
resources and the maintenance of ecological processes
and genetic diversity.
3.To secure a pleasant, efficient and safe working, living
and recreational environment for all Victorians and
visitors to Victoria.
4.To conserve and enhance those buildings, areas or other
places which are of scientific, aesthetic, architectural or
historical interest, or otherwise of special cultural
What are planning schemes?
A scheme that outlines the planning objectives of a loacal council or state that conrtols land use and development in that area. Information in the planning scheme details when permits are needed for any changes or new developments.
Who are the planning authorities?
Local concils and State governments
Who draws up land use planning schemes?
local councils and state governments
Who is the responsible authority that administers the planning scheme?
Local council.
What are Victoria's Planning Provisions?
State-wide reference document or template
from which planning schemes are sourced
and constructed that allows for different land uses and requirements in different municipalities.
What does a planning provision provide for and what is it a tool for?
It provides for a particular planning need and Is a tool for facilitating appropriate land
protection, use, and development.
What must a planning authority do when preparing a planning scheme?
The PA must have regard to
-ministers directions
-strategic directions
-significant effects on the environment
What are the 10 things that every planning scheme contains?
• Objectives of planning in Victoria
• Purposes of planning scheme
• User guide
• State Planning Policy Framework
• Local Planning Policy Framework
• Zones and overlay provisions
• Particular provisions
• General provisions
• Definitions
• Incorporated documents
Define "use" of land.
Using land for a particular purpose, may not involve building something.
Define "development" of land.
construction, alteration or demolition of a
building or works and the subdivision or
consolidation of land
What is a zone?
A planning provision that lists land use in three sections
-uses that do not require a permit
-uses that require a permit
-uses that are prohibited
Planning for urban consolidation can include..
• Mixed land-use zoning
• Medium density residential zoning
• Defined urban boundaries
What are overlays?
• Planning provision in addition to
zone provision

• Ensure that important aspects of the
landscape are recognised
• 23 standard overlays (e.g. vegetation
protection overlay)
What are planning scheme amendments for?
To change zoning/permitted uses as
indicated in the planning scheme.
Prepared by planning authorities.
what are the steps taken in planning scheme amendments?
• Request an amendment
• Authorisation
• Preparation
• Exhibition
• Submissions, panels and advisory committees
• Adoption
• Approval
What are planning permits?
Legal documents that give permission for a use or development on a particular piece of land.
What is the application process for a planning permit?
1. Find out if permit required
2. Fill out application form
3. Describe what permit is for
4. State cost of development
5. Include owner’s consent
6. Attach title information
7. Attach plans and necessary extra information
8. Checklist
9. Submit application
What is the minimum energy rating that all new homes must have?
5 stars. From may 2011, 6 stars.
What are some grounds that interested/affected parties can object to a proposal on?
• potential environmental effects
• social or economic effects
• inconsistencies with planning scheme or strategic
What is the role of VCAT?
Independent body set up in1998 to provide Victorians with
access to a civil justice system.
What is a VCAT appeal called?
Application for review
With an application for review, how long do both the applicant and the objector have to apply?
Applicant - within 60 days of council giving notice
(can be for a review if permit is refused or
granted with conditions)
Objector - Objector
– Must be within 21 days of the Notice of
Decision to Grant a Permit
What is the main tension over change in planning?
Form (melb's built environment) vs Function (the changing function of melb and its burbs)
What are some of the changing functions in melbourne?
-more affluent, higher standards of living and expectation
-transition from industrial to knowledge economy
-more diverse society/values
-from mass transit to individual mobility
What is strategic planning?
Strategic or forward planning which is based on analysis of issues and trends.
Should be monitored and reviewed regularly.
Who is responsible for strategic planning in Victoria?
The planning authority - local council or state government
What are the frameworks for strategic planning?
• State Planning Policy Framework
– Strategic principles for land use and
development across Victoria
• Local Planning Policy Framework
– Strategic context for municipality
What does the state planning and policy framework contain?
• Key strategic direction for planning in Victoria.
• General principles for land use and development across Victoria.
• Specific sectoral policies: e.g. settlement, environment.
• Informs all planning authorities of State level planning issues.
• Every planning scheme in Victoria contains this policy
framework, which is identical in all schemes.
What are some common themes in the inner cities of Australia?
• Densities higher
• up public transport use
• down detached housing
• down capacity to compost
• up air travel
What are some common themes in the urban areas of Australia?
• Similar domestic
energy use
• up water use
• up urban sprawl
• less pollution (dispersed)
What are some themes in state planning and policy frameworks policy on settlement?
– accommodate projected population growth
– encourage urban consolidation
– encourage higher density and mixed use development
near public transport
What is the state planning and policy frameworks policy on environment and landscape values?
Planning should help to protect the health of ecological
systems and the biodiversity they support (including
ecosystems, habitats, species and genetic diversity) and
conserve areas with identified environmental and landscape
What is the state planning and policy frameworks policy on environment risks?
Planning should adopt a best practice environmental
management and risk management approach which aims to
avoid or minimise environmental degradation and hazards.
What is the state planning and policy frameworks policy on natural resource management?
Planning is to assist in the conservation and wise use of
natural resources including energy, water, land, stone and
minerals to support both environmental quality and
sustainable development
What is the state planning and policy frameworks policy on built environment and heritage?
Planning should ensure all new land use and development
appropriately responds to its landscape, valued built form
and cultural context, and protect places and sites with
significant heritage, architectural, aesthetic, scientific and cultural value.
What is the state planning and policy frameworks policy on housing?
Planning should provide for housing diversity, and ensure
the efficient provision of supporting infrastructure.
New housing should have access to services and be
planned for long term sustainability, including walkability
to activity centres, public transport, schools and open
What is the state planning and policy frameworks policy on economic development?
Planning is to provide for a strong and innovative
economy, where all sectors of the economy are critical to
economic prosperity.
What is the state planning and policy frameworks policy on transport?
Planning should ensure an integrated and sustainable
transport system that provides access to social and
economic opportunities, facilitates economic prosperity,
contributes to environmental sustainability, coordinates
reliable movements of people and goods, and is safe.
What is the state planning and policy frameworks policy on infrastructure?
Planning for development of social and physical
infrastructure should enable it to be provided in a way that
is efficient, equitable, accessible and timely.
What does the local planning policy framework contain?
– Municipal Strategic Statement
– Local planning policies
What is the victorian coastal strategy?
“The Victorian Coastal Strategy is the State Government’s
policy commitment for coastal, estuarine and marine
environments in Victoria. It provides a long-term vision for
the planning, management and sustainable use of our coast,
and the policies and actions Victorians will need to implement
over the next five years to help achieve that vision.”
(VCC, 2008)
What are some Current Strategic Planning
Directions in Victoria
•Melbourne 2030
• Melbourne @ 5 million
• A Plan for Melbourne’s Growth Areas
• Urban Development Program
What are two government initiated policies to protect victoria's biodiversity?
Flora and fauna guarantee act 1988
Victoria's biodiversity Strategy 1997
What were the major government biodiversity planning documents released in 2010?
“Securing our natural future. A white paper
for land and biodiversity at a time of climate
”Biodiversity is Everybody’s Business.
Victoria’s Biodiversity Strategy 2010‐ 2015.
Consultation Draft. 2010”
What were three major components of the former governments white paper?
▪ Build ecosystem resilience across Victoria
▪ Manage flagship areas to maintain ecosystem services
▪ Improve connectivity in areas identified as biolinks
Define biological diversity
“Biological diversity [or biodiversity] is the
variety of all life forms – the different
plants, animals and microorganisms, the
genes they contain, and the ecosystems of
which they form a part.”
What are the components of biological diversity?
What are the three main value groups of biodiversity?
-social value
-ecosystem services
-biological resources
Definition of conservation
“Sensible and careful use of natural
resources by humans.”
(G.T. Miller, 2007)

“The management of human use of the
biosphere so that it may yield the greatest
sustainable benefit to present generations
while maintaining its potential to meet the
needs and aspirations of future
(IUCN, 1980)
What is Australia's biodiversity conservation strategy 2010-2030?
Framework for protecting
Australia’s biodiversity.
The vision of this Strategy is that
Australia's biodiversity is healthy
and resilient to threats, and valued
both in its own right and for its
essential contribution to our
What are some major threats to biodiversity?
• Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation
• Invasive species
• Unsustainable use and management of
natural resources
• Changes to the aquatic environment and
water flows
• Changing fire regimes
• Climate change
What is the piece of Commonwealth legislation for biodiversity conservation?
Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999
What does the EPBC act do?
• Provides protection to listed threatened
species and ecological communities, listed
migratory species, marine species and
cetaceans through two mechanisms…
1. The permit system
2. Environmental Impact Assessment
What does the EPBC act provide for?
• Identification of threatening
• Protection of critical habitat
• Preparation of recovery plans etc.
• Issuing of conservation orders
• Regulation of wildlife exports
and imports
Who administers the flora and fauna guarntee act?
department of sustainability and environment f Minister for Environment
and Climate Change
The Hon. Ryan Smith MP
What is the purpose of the flora and fauna gurantee act?
“The purpose of the Act is to establish a legal and
administrative structure to enable and promote the
conservation of Victoria’s native flora and fauna and to
provide for a choice of procedures which can be used for
the conservation, management or control of flora and fauna
and the management of potentially threatening processes.”
When is a species or community eligible for a listing under the FFG act?
“demonstrable state of decline which is likely
to result in extinction or if it is significantly
prone to future threats which are likely to result
in extinction”
How can land use planning contribute to nature conservation?
1. Strategic planning
2. Planning schemes
3. Conservation covenants
What are the two vegetation conservation related overlays?
Vegetation Protection Overlay,
Environmental Significance Overlay
What factors can influence conservation activities?
> Community awareness
> Dependence on land for income
> Public participation and consultation
> Competing interests
> Time, $$
> How easy it is to participate etc. etc.
What is heritage?
• Items refer to areas or objects that
the community values
• Often historic items
• But also from recent past
• Cultural heritage
• Natural heritage
Who are the stakeholders in heritage planning?
• Community
• NGOs
• Government
• Land developers
When was the world heritage convention established and what does it do>
• Australia ratified in 1974
• Commits member countries and
promotes cooperation among
What is the listing process for getting something on the world heritage list?
– nominated by Australian
– consultation
– must meet criteria
– nomination considered by World
Heritage Committee (with advice
from IUCN and ICOMOS)
What are some of the criteria for evaluating heritage items?
• Cultural
– e.g. masterpiece of creative genius;
great architectural influence
• Natural
– e.g. represents major stages of earth
history; scene of exceptional beauty
• “… outstanding universal value…”
Who manages Australian Heritage?
• Department of the Sustainability,
Environment, Water, Population
and Communities
• The Hon.Tony Burke MP
How many world heritage listed sites are there in Australia?
-fraser is.
-Blue mountains national park
-kakdu national park
-lord howe island
-macquari is
-shark bay
-tasmanian wilderness
-ningaloo coast
-wet tropics of qld
How are world heritage sites protected?
• The Environment Protection and
Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999
protects World Heritage properties
– Management Plans
– Environmental Impact Assessment of
actions likely to have significant impacts on
World Heritage Properties
– Penalties
What is the Australian Heritage Council?
• Principal adviser to Government
• Established under Australian
Heritage Council Act 2003
• Maintains the Register of the
National Estate
What is victorias heritage legislation called?
Heritage Act 1995
Who is the Heritage Act administered by?
– Heritage Council of Victoria advises
Minister for Planning and is
Victoria’s main decision-making
body on cultural (non-Indigenous)
heritage issues
– Decides which places are added to
Victorian Heritage Register
What is the victorian heritage register?
Lists over 1900 places/objects
within Victoria
– buildings, places and objects
– gardens and trees
– cemeteries
– precincts
– archaeological places and relics
– shipwrecks, relics and protected zones
Once something is registered on the victorian heritage register, what does it get?
• Legal protection
• Permit system
– permit required for activities that
may alter or damage site
• Offences
– offence to remove, demolish, spoil,
develop, alter or excavate
What are other avenues for protecting heritage?
• Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006 –
Aboriginal Affairs Victoria
– Cultural Heritage Management Plans
– Cultural Heritage Permits
• National Trust Register
– Does not provide legal protection
How is heritage protected in local planning?
• Legislation - P&E Act 1987
• Strategic planning
• Heritage Overlay
What are the strengths of heritage listing?
• increase awareness
• access to funding
-increased eomployment from tourism
– Sense of place
– Sense of history
– Sustainability
– Tourism
– Preservation of buildings as works of art
What are the weaknesses of heritage listing?
• what constitutes ‘universal
• often no legal protection
-protection of sites not guarnteed
– Complexity
– Inequity
– Administrative expense
– Barrier to desirable future development
What is EIA?
• Process of evaluating potential
environmental impact of a
• Impacts and alternatives
• Led by proponent
• Interdisciplinary
What are three fields that have influenced the development of EIA?
• Pollution
• Public Health
• Naturalists
Where was EIA developed?
United States
What are EIA screening techniques for?
To determine whether an
environmental impact
assessment is needed
What are the screening criteria for EIA?
• Project thresholds
• Sensitive area criteria
• Positive and negative lists
• Matrices
• Initial environmental evaluation
When predicting environmental impacts, what are the main things that need to be done?
• Identify
– positive impacts
– negative impacts
• Evaluate
– magnitude
– importance
What is the magnitude of an environmental impact?
the degree, extensiveness or scale of an interaction
What is meant by the "importance" of an environmental impact?
the weighting of the degree
of importance of the action
on the environment
What are some of the EIA evaluation techniques?
• ad hoc
• checklists
• matrices
• overlays
• systems diagrams
• networks
• quantitative or index methods
• mathematical models
What is the ad hoc technique?
• Descriptive form – summaries
of impacts
• Can be difficult to interpret
• Qualitative and quantitative
What are some different types of EIA checklists?
– simple checklists
– descriptive checklists
– threshold of concern checklists
– scaling checklists
What are some features of simple checklists?
• Often classed as ad-hoc
• Encourage discussion in early
• No guidelines on how to
What are descriptive checklists?
• Provide more information than
simple checklist
• Might include simple checklist
with description of impact
and/or guidance on how to
measure the impact
What is a threshold of concern checklist?
Checklist plus threshold at
which assessor should become
concerned about impact
What is a scaling checklist
• Includes scaling techniques
e.g. -5 (greatest impact) to
+5 (beneficial impact)
• Often involves value
What is an EIA matrix?
• Checklist that incorporates
quantitative information about
cause and effect relationships
– e.g. Leopold matrix (p.231
Elliott & Thomas 2009)
• Each alternative or time period
requires separate matrix
What is an EIA overlay?
• Transparencies to assess
• Graphical display
• Geographic Information
Systems (GIS)
What is an EIA network?
• Identifies major environmental
• Flow diagram to show how one
environmental impact can lead to
What are some things that environmental effects statements contain?
• Objectives of proposal
• Description of proposal and alternatives
• Approvals required/public consultation
• Description of existing environment
• Prediction of potential impacts (including
‘no change’ option)
• Reasons for preferred option
• Measures to manage impacts
• Responses to issues raised by public
• Names of those who prepared EES
What are mitigation measures?
• Measures to reduce or
eliminate negative impacts
– Avoid
– Reduce
– Compensate
What is the main piece of commonwealth EIA legislation and who is responsible for it?
• Environment Protection and
Biodiversity Conservation
Act 1999
• Minister for Sustainability,
Environment, Water,
Population and Communities
– The Hon Tony Burke
Define environment relative to EIA
a) ecosystems and their constituent
parts, including people and
communities; and
b) natural and physical resources; and
c) the qualities and characteristics of
locations, places and areas; and
d) heritage values of places; and
e) the social, economic and cultural
aspects of a thing mentioned in (a),
(b), (c), or (d).
What is the Commonwealth EIA process?
• Project proposal covered by
• Project referred to Minister
• Minister decides type of
• After assessment, Minister
What are controlled actions and some examples of them?
• Controlled actions are those that are
prohibited without Ministerial approval
• They include:
– Actions that impact on ‘matters of
national environmental significance’
– Actions that have a significant
impact on the environment where
the actions affect, or are taken on,
Commonwealth land
– Actions that have a significant
impact on the environment, where
the actions are carried out by a
Commonwealth agency
What are some things that need to be considered when assessing "significant" impacts?
• On-site and off-site impacts
• Direct and indirect impacts
• Frequency and duration of the
• Total impact over space and time
• Receiving environment
• Knowledge of impacts
When does a referal for an EIA need to be made?
“If after undertaking a self-assessment you
conclude that your action is likely to have a
significant impact on a matter of national
environmental significance, or if you are
unsure, you should refer the action to the
Australian Government environment
minister. Substantial penalties apply for
taking an action that has, will have or is
likely to have a significant impact on a
matter of national environmental
significance without approval.”
What is a bilateral agreement?
• To reduce duplication
• Allow Commonwealth to
‘accredit’ particular state/territory
assessment processes and, in
some cases, state/territory
approval decisions
• Assessment bilateral – action still
requires approval from Minister
under EPBC Act
What are the three pieces of Victorian EIA legislation?
• Environment Effects Act
• Planning and Environment
Act 1987
• Environment Protection Act
Who is the (Victorian) Environmental Effects Act 1978 administered by?
Department of Planning and Community Development
What is an EES?
• Prepared under Environment
Effects Act 1978
• Describes likely
environmental impacts of
proposed development
When might an EES be required?
• May be required by the Minister
• May be required based on list of
considerations (e.g. character of
environment, potential impacts etc.)
What are the seven steps in the EIA process?
1.Notification (referal); proposal put forward by proponent
2.Screening; minister decides if an EIA is required and which form it should take
3.Scoping;to determine the issues to be investigated
4. Report preparation: EIS, EES developed by proponent
5.public review: submissions
6. Final assessment:EIS/EES and public submissions considered to give the go ahead or not.
7. Implementation: Final assessment is
implemented by government
and proponent.
What are some benefits of EIA for proponents?
• Better project planning
• Lower project costs in longterm
• Greater chance of public
What are some benefits of EIA for decision makers?
• Improved planning
• Better environmental
• Minimise social impacts
What are some benefits of EIA for the public?
• Public involvement in
• Confidence in outcomes
What are some criticisms of EIA?
• Only applies to projects with
major impacts
• Time needed
• No framework for different
types and levels of
environmental risk
• No obligations on proponents
• Little follow-up monitoring
What are some different types of impact assessment?
• Environmental Impact
• Social Impact Assessment
• Strategic Environmental
• Cumulative Impact Assessment
• Regulatory Impact Assessment
• Health Impact Assessment
• Greenhouse Gas Assessment
What is a social impact assessment?
• Changes to:
– way of life
– cultural traditions
– community
• Efforts to reduce impacts
• Can be part of EIA
– e.g. Mountainview Quarry Expansion, Point
• SIA and public participation go together
What are some key stages in Social IA and EIA?
• Profile existing environment
• Predict changes
• Assess ‘significance’ of
• Evaluate overall impact
What is a strategic IA?
• Strategic planning
• Considers impacts over time
and space
• Used at National or Regional
level to assess strategic
Where EIA is reactive Strategic IA is..
Where EIA's scope is site specific, SEA's is...
Where EIA assesses specific projects, SEA assesses
What are two reasons why strategic environmental assessment is not widely adopted?
• Technology more difficult
• Lack of funding
What is a cumulative impact assessment?
• Assesses total impact from a
series of smaller impacts
What are some common sources of cumulative impacts?
• Time crowding
– Frequent impacts on single area
– e.g. walking track
• Space crowding
– High density of impacts
– e.g. habitat fragmentation in
What is regulatory impact assessment?
• To assess impact of
government on society
• e.g. legislation, policy etc.
Does the National Trust Heritage Register provides the highest level of legal protection for important heritage sites in Australia.