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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the two parts that the skull can be divided into?
viscerocranium or facial skeleton
what makes up the neurocranium?
calvaria - dome-like cap housing brain
cranial base - complex floor where cranial nerves and blood vessels pass
what's the neurocranium?
box-like vault that protects brain and it blood supply
what makes up the viscerocranium or facial skeleton?
orbits - bony cavities that protect eyeballs


nasal cavities
what are the major bones of the skull that i need to know?
inferior nasal concha
what landmarks of the face do i need to know?
piriform aperture
zygomatic arch
nasal septum
mental protuberance
what foramena on the face do i need to know?
supraorbital notch or foramen
infraorbital foramen
mental foramen
what are the margins of the orbits, bone wise?
frontal bone, maxilla, zygomatic bone
what are the true orbital bones?
where is the optic canal?
is in sphenoid bone
what and where are the two orbital fissures i should be aware of?
inferior and superior orbital fissures
superior orbital fissure is next to optic canal
inferior orbital fissure is between sphenoid, maxilla, zygomatic
what are the names for the tops and bottoms of orbits?
infraorbital and supraorbital margins
is it the supraorbital notch or foramen?
is notch when not complete hole, is foramen when complete hole
what other parts of the orbits do i need to know?
zygomatic process of the frontal bone
frontal process of zygomatic bone
superciliary arch
maxillary process of zygomatic bone
zygomatic process of maxilla
where's the superciliary arch?
just arch above eyebrows - protruberance above eyebrows?
where's the frontal process of the zygomatic bone?
this is the lateral part of the eye
zygomatic bone goes up to form bony edge of eye
where's the zygomatic process of the frontal bone?
this must be the part of the frontal bone that dips down on the lateral edge of the orbit to meet the frontal process of the zygomatic bone
where's the maxillary process of the zygomatic bone?
couldn't find in netter, but must be the part of the zygomatic bone closest to the maxilla
where's the zygomatic part of the maxilla?
is part right next to fissure tween maxilla and zygomatic bone
where's the parietal bone?
this is the huge bone that makes up the bulk of the sides of the skull
what's the sphenoid bone look like from the side?
is just posterior to zygomatic bone, anterior to temporal bone
where's the coronal suture?
is suture tween frontal and parietal bones - in anterior part
where's the sagittal suture?
tween parietal bones - top of skull, down middle
where's the lambdoid suture?
is in back tween occipital and parietal
where's the squamous suture?
tween temporal and parietal bones
what's the hole to the middle ear called?
external acoustic meatus
where's the pterion?
is H-shaped suture
tween sphenoid and parietal bones
is landmark for head trauma
bleeding tween dura and skull
drill in pterion - middle menangial artery there to relieve bleeding
where's the bregma?
is point where coronal suture and sagittal suture meet
where's the lambda?
is point where sagittal suture meets lambdoid suture
where is and what is the inion?
is post-occipital protruberance
where's the ramus of the mandible?
is vertical big body part
where is the temporal fossa?
according to netter, is gigantic area of indentation at side of head above zygomatic arch, beneath parietal bone
where's the infratemporal arch?
is really kind of a big area as well

bound posteriorly by styloid process

best seen from removal of zygomatic arch and mandible
pterygopalatine fossa
behind eye
is actual hole from what i can see
in infratemporal fossa
where's the palatine bone?
looking at skull from inferior perspective
palatine is the palate
is back part of roof of mouth
where are the medial and lateral plates of the sphenoid bone?
medial is by vomer, medial to foramen lacerum
lateral plate is still medial to foramen ovale
where are the styloid processes?
these are the super sharp spines on inferior part of skull
where's the mastoid process?
dull protruberance by styloid process, outermost part of skull
where's the stylomastoid foramen?
right between styloid process and mastoid process
how do we divide the superior aspect of the cranial base?
3 fossae:
1. anterior cranial fossa
2. middle cranial fossa
3. posterior cranial fossa
what structures are most prominent in the anterior cranial fossa?
1. crista galli of ethmoid bone
2. cribiform plate of ethmoid
what is attached to the crista galli?
portion of dura mater
what structures rest on top of the cribriform plate of ethmoid?
olfactory bulbs
cranial nerve I travels through the many openings in cribriform plate
where the hell is the sphenoid crest?
it's an imaginary line as far as i can tell dividing anterior and middle cranial fossae, follows lesser wings of sphenoid until get to anterior clinoid processes and then cuts those off, going across to other lesser wing of sphenoid
where are the lesser wings of the sphenoid?
are just anterior to sphenoid crest
actually in the anterior cranial fossa
where are the greater wings of the sphenoid?
these are posterior to the sphenoid crest and are in the middle cranial fossa
what's the name of those things that stick out from the lesser wing of the sphenoid?
anterior clinoid processes
clinoid means bedpost and the sella turcica is surrounded by them
what bones make up the middle cranial fossa?
sphenoid and temporal bones
what's the structure in the middle of the middle cranial fossa?
sella turcica
what's the shallow depression in the middle of the sella turcica called?
pituitary fossa
is where pituitary gland rests
what's another name for pituitary fossa?
hypophyseal fossa
where are the middle and inner ear located in terms of the inferior aspect of the inside of the skull?
in petrous temporal bone of middle cranial fossa
where's the petrous temporal bone of middle cranial fossa?
is incline up to sharp crest that delineates distinction tween middle and posterior cranial fossae
what are the 6 openings i need to know that are found in the middle cranial fossa?
1. optic canal
2. superior orbital fissure
3. foramen rotundum
4. foramen ovale
5. foramen spinosum
6. foramen lacerum
where's the optic canal
is just deep to anterior clinoid processes
what travels through optic canal?
1. cn II = optic nerve
retina to brain
2. ophthalmic artery
where's the superior orbital fissure?
tween greater and lesser wings of sphenoid
hidden by sphenoid crest
connects orbit with middle cranial fossa
what goes through the superior orbital fissure?
cn from midbrain and hindbrain to muscles moving eyes
CN III, CN IV, CN VI, CN V1 (V1 = ophthalmic nerve)
ophthalmic vein - drains posterior orbit
where's the foramen rotundum?
is just posterior to superior orbital fissure
is round
what passes through the foramen rotundum?
CN V2 - sensory to skin of cheeks, upper jaw - called maxillary nerve
where's the foramen ovale?
in trio of holes behind foramen rotundum, back of middle cranial fossa, is oval one, middle in size
what passes through foramen ovale?
CN V3 = sensory to jaw and motor to muscles of mastication = mandibular nerve
where's other foramen ovale we've supposedly already learned about?
in heart, is opening tween atria for fetus
where are the foramen spinosum?
are small holes in trio of foramen in back of middle cranial fossa
what passes through the foramen spinosum?
middle meningeal artery - clinically important vessel because is what bursts, causing pressure on brain, can be drained via hole drilled through pterion
where is the foramen lacerum?
these are huge holes in my model skull
what's important to know about foramen lacerum
covered inferiorly by cartilage
NOTHING can travel through
says internal carotid artery does enter side of opening and turns superiorly to brain
textbook said it didn't go through at all
where's the posterior cranial fossa?
is also foramen magnum
spinal cord passes through
CN XI also passes through - enters skull from neck
what's the clivus? where is it?
clivus is smooth part of occipital bone just anterior to foramen magnum - is big
where's the internal acoustic meatus
most superior of three holes in posterior cranial fossa anterior to foramen magnum
what nerves enter the internal acoustic meatuses?
CN VII - facial nerve
branches in canals in temporal bone
exits skull through small openings - stylomastoid foramen

CN VIII into auditory and vestibular organs through this opening
where's the jugular foramen?
is big hole by foramen magnum
what passes through jugular foramen
most of blood drains through here into internal jugular vein

CN IX, X and XI
where's the hypoglossal canal?
is small hole right next to foramen magnum
what passes through hypoglossal canal?
hypoglossal nerve - CN XII

exits through hypoglossal canal en route to base of tongue
what are muscles of facial expression i need to know?
orbicularis oculi
zygomaticus major
zygomaticus minor
levator labii superioris
orbicularis oris
depressor anguli oris
where is the orbicularis oculi?
encircles palpebral fissure (opening of eyelids)
what are the parts of the orbicularis oculi and where are they?
3 parts:
1. orbital part - surrounds orbital margin
responsible for TIGHT closure of eyelid
2. palpebral part - thinner portion
in eyelids
involved in blinking
3. lacrimal part - deep to palpebral part
won't be seen in dissection
what's another name for the frontalis muscle?
occiptofrontalis, epicranius
where is the occipitofrontalis - what is its inferior attachment, superior attachment
apparently there are 2 parts to the frontalis; the frontal belly and the occipital belly - muscle in front and back

inferior attachment of frontal belly of frontalis = skin of forehead and eyebrows
superior attachment = epicranial aponeurosis
what innervates the frontal belly of the frontalis?
facial nerve - CN VII
where is the levator labii superioris?
is vertical muscle closest to nose from eye muscles to lip muscle
what are the attachments of the levator labii superioris?
superior attachment - maxilla, just below orbital margin
inferior attachment to upper lip
what does the levator labii superioris do?
elevates upper lip
what are the attachments of the zygomaticus major muscle?
lateral attachment to zygomatic bone
medial attachment to angle of mouth
what does the zygomaticus major muscle do?
draws angle of mouth superiorly and posteriorly
where's the zygomaticus minor muscle in relation to major?
is medial to major - closer to levator labii superioris
what are the attachments and functions of orbicularis oris muscle?
medial attachments; maxilla, mandible, skin in median plane
lateral attachment - angle of mouth

action: sphincter of mouth
what are the attachments of teh buccinator muscle?
proximal attachments -
pterygomandibular raphe
lateral surfaces of alveolar processes of maxilla and mandible

distal attachment - angle of mouth
what's the action of the buccinator muscle?
compresses cheek against molar teeth
keeps food on occlusal surfaces during chewing
what are the attachments and actions of the depressor anguli oris muscle?
inferior attachment - mandible
superior attachment - angle of mouth

action: depresses corner of mouth
what are the attachments of the platysma?
inferiorly - passes superficial to clavicle
attached to superficial fascia of deltoid and pectoral regions

superiorly - attached to mandible, skin of cheek, angle of mouth, orbicularis oris
what innervates the platysma?
facial nerve
what are the muscles of mastication that i need to know?
masseter and temporal muscle
what are the parts of the masseter muscle?
deep and superficial
what innervates the muscles of facial expression?
facial nerve - CN VII
where does the facial nerve enter the face?
through stylomastoid foramen
what branches are there of the facial nerve?
1. temporal
2. zygomatic
3. buccal
4. mandibular
5. cervical
what's a mnemonic to remember the branches of the facial nerve?
To Zanzibar By Motor Car
what are some possible etiologies of paralysis of muscles of facial expression?
stroke, Lyme disease, severe infections of middle ear
iatrogenic trauma
what's paralysis of the mucles of facial expression also called?
facial nerve palsy
Bell's Palsy
what nerve innervates the muscles of mastication?
mandibular nerve
what's another name for the mandibular nerve?
3rd division of cranial nerve V
what nerve provides sensory innervation to the face?
CN V or trigeminal nerve
what are the names of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve CN V?
CN V1 = ophthalmic nerve
CN V2 = maxillary nerve
CN V3 = mandibular nerve
what are a couple of important branches off the ophthalmic nerve, CN V1 that sensory innervate the face?
supraorbital nerve
supratrochlear nerve
what do the supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves do?
supply forehead near orbit
what's an important branch of CN V2 supplying sensory innervation to the face called?
infraorbital nerve
where does the mental nerve come from and what does it do?
is branch off mandibular nerve, CN V3
goes to chin via mental foramen
what's the parotid gland and where is it?
is large salivary gland anterior to ear
how does saliva from the parotid gland get to the oral cavity?
parotid duct
what innervates the parotid gland?
parasympathetic fibers from CN IX
what's potentially confusing about the innervation of the parotid gland?
CN VII passes through the gland on the way to the muscles of facial expression - it DOES NOT innervate the gland itself
where does the facial artery come from?
is branch of external carotid artery
where can one feel the pulse of the facial artery?
inferior border of mandible
what innervates the zygomaticus major?
don't know - look it up