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39 Cards in this Set

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What are the four types of membranes found in the human body?
1.Serous Membrane
2.Mucous Membrane
3.Synovial Membrane
4.Cutaneous Membrane
Serous Membrane:
Function and Location
1.Secrete serous fluid to reduce friction between cavity and wall.
2.Always in pairs on covers internal organ other covers cavity.
Three serous membranes:
Location
1.Pericardial Mem.-One covers heart, one covers tharacic cavity
2.Pleural-one covers lungs, one covers thoracic cavity
3.Peritoneal-one covers all organs of abdonamial and pelvic, one covers cavities
Mucous Cavity:
Location & Function
1.Line insides of hollow organs w/an exit to the outside
2.Secrete mucus to trap particles, protects lineing, and lubrication
Synovial Membrane:
Location & Function
1.Found with in synovial joints
2.Secretes synovial fluid for reducing friction between bones and shock absorber
Cutaneous Membrane:
The Skin
What are the functions of skin? (1-8)
1.Barrier to infection
2.Regulate and maintain body temp.
3.Barrier to water loss.
4.Contains sensory structures for pain, touch, and temperature.
5.Protects underlying tissue from chemical and physical harm.
6.protect from UV.
7.UV Can help skin produce VIT. D
8.Excretory organ excretes waste in sweat.
What are the three distinct layers of skin?
1.Epidermis
2.Dermis
3.Hypodermis
What is the basement Membrane?
A extracellular matrix that attaches epithelial tissue to CT.
What is the epidermis composed of? Tissue and cell structure.
1.Stratified squamos Epithelial tissue
2.Keratinocytes
What is the function of Keratin?
To make cells tough/durable and water resistant.
How does the epidermis obtain nutrients with out blood vessels?
Simple diffusion from Connective tissue in dermis.
Where is the stratum basale and what unique function does it do for epidermis?
1.The deepest layer of the epidermis.
2.It undergoes cell division frequently to replace dead or dying cells in superficial layer. Well nourished.
What are epidermal ridges?
Increase Surface area and increase adhesive between dermis and epidermis.
What are fingerprints and there function?
1.
2. For grip.
What are melanocytes,what do they produce, and what are their function?
1.Cells that are found in the s. basale between keratoncytes.
2. They produce a pigment called melanin.
3.Inject melanin into adjcent keratinocytes to absorb UV.
What is the cytocrine process?
When melanocytes inject melanin into adjcent keratinocytes.
What happens when a person is exposed to uv light?
What is tanning?
The melanocytes will produce more melanin and inject more melanin into keratinocytes skin will darken.
How does UV damage skin?
1.It creates mutations upon genes of skin changing structure of gene.
2.Permanetly changes skin develop wrinkles
Charcteristics of Stratum Corneum?
Most superficial layer, Dead cells that are very flat and very keratinized.
What are desmosomes?
Two cells connected together.
What is the dermis composed of mostly?
Dense irregular CT.
90% Collagen fibers
10% Elastic fibers
What other tissues are found in the dermis?
1.Epithelial Tissue
2.Smooth muscle
3.Nervous tissue
What accessory structures are in dermis?
1.Hair follicles
2.All Glands
3.Arrector pili muscle
4.Allows for senses
5.Blood Vessels and blood
Where is the hypodermis?
Below the dermis.
What two tissues compose the hypodermis mostly?
1. Adipose
2.Loose Connective tissue
Where is hair found?
Every where but a few places palms lips bottom of feet ext, reproductive organs.
What is a hair shaft and the follicle composed of?
1.Dead tightly packed keratinized cells.
2.Living keratinocytes
What are nails composed of and what are the function of nails?
1.Very tightly packed dead keratinezed Keratinocytes.
2.Protect the ends of your digits from harm.
What do sebaceous glands produce and why are they associated with hair follicles?
1.Produce oil called sebum
2.Keeps hair from braking
What happens to sebum production with age?
It decreases
Where is the apocrine glands found and what do they produce?
1.Armpits and the groin
2.They produce and odorous sweat
When do aprocrine glands produce this substance?
During sexual excitement and chronic stress.
Where are eccrine glands found and when do they produce sweat?
1.All over the body.
2.To cool body temp.
What is found in sweat?
Water, Salts, and urea
What happens to eccrine glands as we age?
It decreases
What part of the body acts as the bodys thermostat?
Hypothalamuss
How does the body produce heat?
Metabolism, Skelatel muscle, brain, and liver.
How does the body regulate temp. when the body core gets too hot and too cold?
1.Move blood from core to surface and apendages by vasoconstriction of core blood vesels and vasodilation of the skin blood vessels.
2. Increase heart rate and breathing rate
3.Stimulate eccrine glands to sweat.
4. Oppisite for core being to cold.