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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The skin is made up of?
The epidermis
The dermis
The hypodermis
The epidermis is made up of?
Epithelial layer of strastified squamous epithelium
The dermis is made up of?
Connective tissue and all structures embedded within
The hypodermis
Although not always considered part of the skin, studied with the integumentary system; mainly adipose
Parts of the Epidermis
Stratum Basale
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Corneum
The Stratum basale is
The deepest layer where rapid mitosis occurs
It is the source of cella which will be pushed upward to form other layers of the epidermis
What are melanocytes
located in the stratum basale, melanocytes produce melanin..

Melanin protects the skin from uv rays. some UV makes vitamin
what is the stratus spinosum
The thickest layer of living cells, the cells flatten out and produce keratin, and glycolypids that toughen and water proof the skin.
What are other cells found in the Stratum Spinosum
Macrophages, which are defensive phagocytic cells
Charachteristics of Stratum Granulsom
As the cells flatten, the meanin granules are compressed into this thin, dark layer. the cells are dying at this point, and the organelles are deteriorating
What do melanin granules produce in the skin?
A productive shield from UV rays
Charachteristics of Lucidum
2 -4 layers thick found just above the
Charachteristics of Stratum Corneum
Cells that have moved up through the granulosum, keratin filled cells, hardened. The copmbo of keratin and glycolypids make the skin a good barrier for water loss.
The Dermis
large bed of connective tissue that the epidermis is anchored to
What is the papillary layer???
Wavy superficial layer, that increases surface area, for stronger attachment to the epidermis
What is the Reticular layer
the rest of the dermis where most of the structures important to the skin are found
Hair is made up of?
epidermal/epithelial cells,,
Therfore a hair is made up of Keratin
melanocytes are found where and contribute to what?
hair folicles, and hair color
Sabaceous glands
are attached to hair folicles and secrete oil on the hair as it grows
Arrector Pili Muscles
small muscles that help hair stand erect
nails are made of ???
hard keratin with a fold of nail matrix providing support for the cells
Sweat Glands`
remove water and small amounts of solutes from blood and release to the surface. evaporation takes heat with it as water vapor laves the skin
what are differences between
Sweat glands
sebacous glands
sweat glands look like tubes of regular cuboidal cells, compared to sebacous gland cells that look larger and more translucent
Blood vessals
constrict/or dialate to regulate how much blood (HEAT) is directednear the surface.
Free nerve endings
Pain, tempeture
Meissners corpuscle
light touch
Pacinain corpuscle
hair folicle receptors
mostly pain
What is the diaphysis
long hollow cylynder weight bearing bones
The epiphyses
are at the ends of the long bone
The ephyses is covered by
articular or (hylaine cartlige)
The membrane on the outside of a bone is the
the endosteum is
membrane inside the bone
where is yellow marrow found
its the fatty tissue inside medullarr cavity
the ntwo basic kinds of bone
compact and spongy
Spongy bone
has spaces between the trebeculae of bone, which contain red marrow. Red marrow is responsible for hemopoeisis or hematopoeisis (blood cell production).
Compact bone
is so dense that cells must arrange themselves in patterns for nutrient/waste exchange (called Osteons or Haversion systems).
Osteons or Haversion systems
are made of osteocytes forming rings of bone tissue (lamellae) around blood vessels.
Haversion (central) canals
contain blood vessals
rings of bone tissue
microscopic “canals” that allow osteocytes to connect.
Osteocyte (bone cell) are found
in lacuna.
produce collagen fibers and secrete hydroxyapatites (mostly calcium phosphate) into the rings of bone matrix (lamellae).

Osteocytes alternate the direction of the fibers and crystals in each lamella; resists twisting.
The bone matrix is too dense for significant nutrient/waste exchange. Canaliculi, microscopic tunnels that connect osteocytes, allow bone cells to connect and form a network for nutrient/waste exchange.

Nutrients (-) and wastes (-) diffuse through the thin arms of osteocytes. Diffusion is too slow to carry nutrients/wastes more than a few cells in a reasonable time period. This is why there are seldom more than a few rings of osteocytes around a central canal