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93 Cards in this Set

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What are some examples of an infectious agent
:
Bacteria
Fungus
Etc.
Where do infectious agents manifest:
Reservoirs
What are some modes of transmission of infectious agents:
Hands (hand hygiene)
Sneeze (airborne)
Term used for how infectious agents get in:
Portal of Entry
(eye)
How can a host be susceptible for infectious agents:
Compromised Immune System
Methods to Reduce Transmission of Pathogens:
***Hand Hygiene
PPE
Medical and Surgical Asepsis
Standard Precautions
Transmission Based Precautions
Utilizing Nursing Process
Who do you use Standards of Precautions with:
Every Pt.
What is transmission based precautions:
Spread of certain disease processes
How does utilizing the nursing process reduce transmission:
Reduces transmission of pathogens
What is medical asepsis:
Clean technique
Reduces pathogens, does not eliminate
What is surgical asepsis:
Sterile Technique
Keeps objects/areas free if microorganisms
(Operating Room, IV)
What are examples for using the standard of precautions:
Any secretions (gloves)
(blood; body fluids, non intact skin, mucous membranes)
What is transmission based precautions and examples(4):
Specific Infection
1. Airborne Precautions
2. Droplet Precautions
3. Contact Precautions
4. Neutropenic Precaution
What would you use as protection in an Airborne Precaution:
N-95 Mask (tightly woven)
What kind of room would you keep a pt for Airborne Precautions:
Negative Air Pressure Room
(keeps germs in room)
What are some examples of Airborne Precautions:
TB
Varicella
Rubeola
How are Airborne Precautions spread:
Through the air
What is the distance used for Droplet Precautions:
3-5 Feet
How are Droplet Precautions Spread:
Fall on surfaces
Spread through large particle droplets
What kind of PPE would you use:
Gown
Mask
Gloves
What are some Examples of Droplet Precautions:(4)
(pathogen in lungs)
Rubella
Mumps
Diphtheria
Adenovirus
How are Contact Precautions transmitted:
Microorganisms spread by direct and indirect contact
What are examples of Indirect Contact through Contact Precautions:
Not directly through the infected pt.
Picked up from touching a table or side rail
What are some examples of Contact Precautions:(4)
MRSA
VRE
VISA
VRSA
What is Neutropenic Precaution:
Protecting the pt from us:
(cannot have fresh flowers, fruit or vegetables)
When are Neutropenic Precautions used:
When Immune System is compromised.
What kind of feelings will the client feel when they are under a Transmission Based Precaution:(4)
Isolation
Lonely
Rejected
Unclean
How can a nurse reduce the feelings a client faces under Transmission Based Precautions:
Education
Spending Additional Time with Pt.
Avoid Facial expressions/disgust
What would you utilize in breaking the chain of infection:
Nursing Process
How would Assessment breaking the chain of infection:
1. Up to date Immunization Status
2. Info on previous infections
3. Signs and Symptoms
What are some signs and symptoms of an infection: (10)
1. Inc WBC
2. Inc. Redness
3. Bradycardia
4. Tachycardia
5. Pain
6. Fever
7.Loss of Function
8. Lethargic
9. Poor Appetite
10. Enlarged Lymphnodes
How will WBC wound show an infection?
>11k
How will Sed Rate (blood value) show an infection:
Inflammation Somewhere in the body
How will C-Relative Protein show an infection:
Show Inflammation somewhere in the body
How would you write a nursing diagnosis related to infections:
Risk for infection r/t....
How would you write a planning/identification for an infection:
The client will minimize signs and symptoms by performing hand hygiene
Why is PPE while treating infections:
to break the chain of infections
what is a nonsocomial infection?
Infection you get from the hospital
(originated in hospital)
What are some Antibiotic-Resistant Organisms:
MRSA
VRE
VISA
What is an example of MRSA:
Staph Aureus
What is an example of VRE:
Enterococci ( a species of strep)
How does the skin offer protection:
Skin is first line of defense, protecting the underlying structures from invasion by organisms
How do mucous membranes offer protection:
Mucous membranes have receptors that offer the body protection

Ex. An irritating substance in the upper respiratory tract causes a person to sneeze
What is normal flora:
Microorganisms that are part of the body's natural defense system
Term used for a localized response of the body to injury or infection; protective mechanism that eliminates invading pathogens and allows for tissue repair to occur:
Inflammatory Response
Term used for a wound that are purposefully created for therapeutic purposes:
Intentional Wound
Term used for wounds that happen from unexpected trauma:
Unintentional Wound
Term used for a wound when the skin surface is broken:
Open Wound
a term used for a type of wound that is caused by a fall or trauma
Closed Wound
Term used for a type of wound that will usually heal within a couple of weeks:
Acute Wound
A term used for a type of wound where the healing process is impeded
Chronic Wound
How does your body respond to an infection/wound:
Inc in WBC and Fever
The Stages of Wound Healing(4)
Hemostasis
Inflammation
Proliferation
Maturation
First stage in wound healing that happens immedialty after injury:
Hemostasis
What happens in Hemostasis?
(3)
1. Blood vessels constrict/ clotting begins

2. Blood vessels dilate/capillary permeability increase allowing plasma/blood to leak into injured area.

3. Plasma and Blood form exudate (causes heat and pain)
How long does inflammatory phase last during Wound:
4-6 Days
What happens during inflammatory phase:
Leukocytes and macrophages move into affected area and promote growth of epithelial and blood vessel.
How long does proliferation phase last for:during a wound
Several weeks
What happens during proliferation phase:
Fibroblast regeneration
Granulation Formation
When does maturation phase begin:
3 weeks after injury
What happens during maturation phase:
Collage is remodeled
What are local factors that affect wound healing? (7)
Desiccation
Maceration
Necrosis
Pressure
Trauma
Edema
Infection
How does dessication effect wound healing?
Cells dry up and die, crust over the wound and delay healing
How does Maceration effect wound healing?
Urine/Feces lead to impaired skin integrity.
Change pH
Overgrow Bacteria
How does Necrosis effect wound healing?
Wound healing doesn't occur with necrotic tissue in the wound
How does pressure effect wound healing?
Disrupts blood supply to the wound area
How does trauma effect wound healing?
Repeated trauma results in inability to heal
How does edema effect wound healing?
interferes with blood supply to that area.
How does Infection effect wound healing?
Bacteria in wound causes the body to use a lot of energy to deal with invaders and less energy on wound healing.
Systematic Factors Affecting Wound Healing:(6)
Age
Circulation
Oxygenation
Nutritional Status
Wound Condition
Medications
How does age affect wound healing?
1. Elderly usually have more than 1 chronic illness

2. Age increases impaired skin integrity
How does circulation affect wound healing?
Blood flow to deliver nutrients and to remove toxins and bacteria
How does oxygenation affect wound healing?
Oxygenation is decreased in people with anemia or chronic respiratory disorders and smokers
how does nutritional status affect wound healing?
Healing requires adequate proteins, carbs, fats, vitamins.
Calories/Proteins - rebuild
Vit A + C - Epithelialialization/Collagen
Zinc - Proliferation
Fluids
How does wound condition affect wound healing?
Affects quickness of healing
wounds with foreign bodies (sutures) heal slower
How do medications affect wound healing?
Suppress immune system delaying healing.
What are some wound complications:
Infection
Hemorrhage
Dehiscence
Evisceration
Fistula
What are signs and symptoms an indicator of:
Infection
Term used for profuse bleeding
Hemorrhage
(change the dressing)
Term used for when a surgical incision is open:
Dehiscence
Term used for protrusion of viscera through an incision
Evisceration
What is the term for an abnormal passage way if an internal organ to the outside of the body:
Fistula
What are some Psychological Effects of Wounds:(4)
Pain
Anxiety
Fear
Changes in Body Image
What do you do after removing the dressing:
Note was is on the dressing
What do you clean a wound with and how?
Saline/Batadine
Least to most contaminated
What are 2 types of wound drains mentioned in lecture:
Jackson Prat Drain (vacuum)
Hemovacc (vacuum)
What collects wound drainage:
Wound Pouch
How do you remove staples and sutures:
Every other one to prevent reopening
Cut under knot
Commonly Used Dressing Materials
NS
Gauze
Q-Tip
Transparent Film
Hydrocolloid
Hydrogel
Alginate
Foams
Silver Dressing
Collagens (skin graft absorbtion)
Adhesives
Skin Protectants
What type of wound is dry dressing used on:
Closed Wound
What type wound is wet dressing used on:
Open Wound
Why is heat therapy used on wounds:
Dilation inc. nutrients getting in
Why is cold therapy used on wounds:
Constriction to reduce pain
(do not use on surgical incision)