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45 Cards in this Set

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what are 5 basic functions of bones
support, motion, protection, storage, blood cell formation.
what are the 4 basic bone types
long, short, flat, irregular
long bones
compact, have shaft w/ heads, ex: limbs
short bones
spongy, sesamoid short w/ tendons. ex: wrist/ankle
flat bones
has 2 thin layers of compact bone. ex: skull, ribs, sternum
irregular bones
ex: vertebrae, spinal column, hip bones.
bone markings
bumps, holes and ridges
projections or processes
depressions or cavities
projections at sites of muscle attachment
tuberosity, crest, trochanter,line,tubercle, epicondyle, spine, process
projections that help form joints
head, facet, condyle, ramus
tuberosity
lg, round projection
crest
narrow ridge of bone
usually prominent
trochanter
lg, blunt, irregualr shap
ex femur
line
narrow ridge of bone
tubercle
small rounded projection
epicondyle
raised area on or above condyle
spine
sharp, slender, pointed
process
any bony prominence.
head
bony expansion on narrow neck
ex: rib
facet
smooth alomost flat
ex: rib
condyle
rounded
jaw (mandible)
ramus
armlike bar of bone
ex jaw
depressions or openings that allow blood vessels/nerves to pass
meatus, sinus, fossa, groove, fissure, foramen.
meatus
canal-like passage way
ex ear
sinus
cavity within a bone
filled with air
lined with mucous membrane
ex sinuses
fossa
shallow basin like depression
ex skull or back
groove
furrow
ex jaw bone
fissure
narrow, slit like opening
ex inside of eye socket for tears
foramen
round or oval opening thru a bone
ex sunuses
diaphysis
long bone structure
shaft
makes up most of bones length
epiphyses
ends of long bone.
has thin layer of compact bone enclosing area of spongy bone.
epiphyseal line
in adult bones
thin line of bony tissue spanning the epiphysis
looks different from rest of bone.
epiphyseal plate
flat plate of hyaline cartlige
seen in young growing bones
causes length wise growing of long bone.
periosteum (sharpey's fibers)
hundred's of connective tissue fibers that secure the periosteum to the underlying bone.
articular cartilage
covers external bone surface in place of periosteum.
endosteum
thin membrane lining cavities of spongy bone.
contains osteoblast and osteoclasts.
osteoblasts
actively mitotic form of bone
osteoclasts
bone destroying cells active in bone reabsorption.
yellow marrow (aka medullary cavity)
cavity in adult bone that is storage area for adipose tissue.
red marrow
cavity in infants bone that forms blood cells.
hematopoiesis (aka hemopoiesis)
means blood cell formation which occurs in red marrow.
microscopic structures of compact bone.
haversian system(osteon), canaliculi, volkmann's canals (perforating canals) osteocytes
haversian system (osteon)
complex consisting of central canal and matrix rings.
canaliculi
tiny canals that radiate outward from the central canals to all lacunae.
form transport system that connects all the bone cells to nutrient sypply thru hard bone matrix.
volkmann's canals (perforating canals
canals that run into the compact bone at right angels.
osteocytes
mature bone cells