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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Some bones contain and protect the ________ a hemopoietic tissue that produces the blood cells.
red bone marrow
Bones are a storage site for excess _______,which is essential for blood clotting as well as bone structure.
calcium
Attached to the skelton are the _________ that move the bones.
muscles
Some bones protect internal organs from __________________.
mechanical injury
__________ regulate the amount of calcium in the bone matrix.
Osteocytes
___________ is made of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate.
Bone matrix
_________ is made of haversian systems, which are cylindrical arrangements of osteocytes wtihin matrix.
Compact bone
___________ contains osteocytes and bone matrix, but these are not arranged in haversian systems.
Spongy bone
________ are bone cells.
Osteocytes
_______ often contains red bone marrow.
Osteocytes
Bones of the arms, legs and hands and feet are ___________ bones.
Long
Wrist and ankle bones are _______________ bones.
Short
Vertebrae and facial bones are ___________ bones.
Irregular
Pelvic bone, cranial bones and ribs are ___________ bones.
Flat
These three; _________ bones are made of spongy bone covered with a thin layer of compact bone.
Short
Flat
Irregular
__________ bones each consists of diaphysis made of compact bone and epiphyses made of spongy bone.
Long
________, ___________, and ________ spongy bones contain red bone marrow.
Short
Flat
Irregular
________ bones, marrow canal contains yellow bone marrow.
Long
The tissue that covers the joint surface of bones is _______________, which provides a smooth surface when joints are moved.
Articular cartilage
The membrane that covers the rest of a bone is called the ______________ and is made of ____________ connective tissue.
Periosteum

Fibrous
The periosteum contains ______________ that enter the bone itself.
blood vessels
The periosteum anchors the ___________that connect muscle to bone, and the __________ that connects bone to bone.
Tendons

Ligaments
Tendons and Ligaments connecting structures are made of ___________ tissue.
Fibrous connective
The skeleton of the embryo is first formed of other tissue that are gradually replaced by bone. The process of bone replacement of another tissue is called _____________.
Ossification
The production of bone matrix is accomplished by cells called _____________.
Osteoblasts
In the embryo, the cranial and facial bones are first made of ______________ tissue.
Fibrous connective
The process of ossification begins in the _____ month of gestation, when osteoblasts differeniate from __________ in the centers of ossifcation in these bones.
Third

fibroblasts
At birth, ossification of the bones of the skull is not complete, and areas of fibrous connective tissue called ___________ remain between the bones.
fontanels
In a long bone, several centers of ossification develop; one in the _____ and one or more in each ___________ of the bones.
diaphysis

epiphysis
Closure of the epiphyseal discs means that all of the __________ of the discs has been replaced by _______ and the growth in length stops. At what age?
Cartilage
bone
16-25
In long bones, the marrow canal is formed by cells called _____ that reabsorb bone matrix.
osteoclasts
After birth, the marrow canal contains ___ bone marrow, which is mostly ____ tissue.
yellow

adipose
Vitamin ____ and vitamin ____ is necessary for the process of bone formation.
C and A
__________ becomes part of the collagen in bone matrix.
Protein
_______ and _______ becomes part of the salts of bone matrix.
Calcium and Phosphorus
Vitamin _____ is necessary for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine.
D
________ and _________ causes long bones to stop growing.
Estrogen and testosterone
Genes are the genetic codes for proteins. The genes for height are probably for the _______ that are needed for the production of ______ and _________. (tissues)
Enzymes

cartilage and bone
Without normal stress (weight bearing exercise)bones will lose ______ faster than it is replaced.
Calcium
The (one division) _____ skeleton, which consists of the _____, vertebrae, and the _________.
Axil

skull
rib cage
The (one division) _________ skeleton, which consist of the bones of the _____ and _____ and the shoulder and _____.
Appendicular

arms and legs
pelvis
The rib cage protects the ______, _____, _____ and _____ from mechanical injury.
heart, lungs,

spleen and liver
Name the bones that attach the legs to the axial skeleton.
hip bones
Name the bones that attach the arms to the axial skeleton.
scapula and clavicle
State the number of each type of vertebrae; Cervical, Thoracis, Lumbar, Sacral, and Coccygeal.
Cervical - 7, Thoracic - 12
Lumbar - 5, Sacral - 5, and Coccygeal - 5
Sacral vertebrae fuses into one bone called the __________.
sacrum
Coccygeal vertebrae fuses into the bone called the ________.
coccyx
The first cervical vertebra is called the ____________ and the second cervical vertebra is called the _________.
atlas

axis
The atlas and axis vertebrae form a ______ joint that permits _________ movement of the head.
pivot

side to side
The ________ ends of the ribs articulate with the ______ vertebrae.
posterior

thoracic
The two hip bones articulate with the ______ of the vertebral column.
sacrum
The supportive part of each vertebra is called the _________.
body
The bodies of adjacent vertebra are separted by discs of ___________. The two functions of these discs ____________ and ______________.
cartilage

permit movement and absorb shock
Name the type of joint between two vertebrae.
symphysis
There are ____ pairs of true ribs, __ pairs of false ribs, and ___ pairs of floating ribs.
7 pair true ribs
3 pair false ribs
2 pair floating ribs
The shoulder girdle that attaches the arm to the axial skeleton consists of two bones the ______ and the __________.
scapula

clavicle
What bone forms a socket for the humerus?
scapula
The _____ of the humerus fits into the glenoid fossa of the _________ to form a _________ joint at the shoulder.
end
scapula
ball and socket joint
Two bones of the forearm are the _____ and _____. Which is part of the elbow joint?
ulna and radius

ulna
The elbow is the articulation of the ______ and ________. What type of joint is this?
humerus and ulna

hinge
At their proximal ends, the radius and ulna form a ____ joint. This joint permits what motion of the hand?
pivot

palm up and down
At their distal ends, the radius and ulna articulate with the ______, the bones of the wrist. How many are found in each wrist? What kind of joint is found?
carpals
8
gliding joint
In each hand there are ____ metacarpals that articulate proximally with the _____ and distally with the ______.
5
carpals
phalanges
The carpometacarpal joint of the thumb is what type of joint? The joint permits what type of motion in the thumb?
saddle

gripping
How many phalanges are present in each finger? How many in one hand? What type of joint is found between phalanges?
3
14
hinge
The socket in the hip bone for the head of the femur is called the _____________.
actabulum
The three major parts of each hip bone are the ______, ______ and _______.
ilium
ischium
pubis
What part (hip bone) articulates with the sacrum? What part articulates with the other hip bone?
ilium

pubis
The bone of the thigh is called the _____. This bone forms what type of joint with the hip bone?
femur

ball and socket
The two bones of the lower leg are the ______ and ______. Which of these is part of the knee joint?
tibia and fibula

tibia
What is the function of the fibula?
attach muscle
The knee is the articulation of the _____ and _____. What type of joint is this?
femur and tibia

hinge
At the distal ends, the tibia and fibula articulate with the ________, the bones of the ankle. How many are found in each ankle?
tarsals

7
In each foot there are ____ metatarsals that articulate proximally with the ____ and distally with the _________.
5
tarsals
phalanges
How many phalanges are present in each foot? In the big toe? In each other toe?
14
2
3
Name the joint that is immovable?
Suture
Name the joint that is slightly movement?
Symphysis
Name the joint that has movement in one plane with some lateral movement?
Condyloid
Name the joint that has movement in all planes?
Ball and socket
Name the joint that has rotation?
Pivot
Name the joint that has movement in several planes?
Saddle
Name the joint that has sliding movement?
Gliding
Name the joint that has movement in one plane?
Hinge
Frontal and parietal bones is an example of _____. (joint)
Suture
Between two vertebrae and between two pubis bones are examples of __________. (joint)
Symphysis
Humerus and ulna is an example of ______. (joint)
hinge
Between carpals is an example of ______. (joint)
gliding
Metacarpals of the thumb is an example of _________. (joint)
saddle
Scapula and humerus is an example of ____________. (joint)
ball and socket
Atlas & Axis and Radius and ulna are examples of ____________. (joint)
Pivot
Temporal bone and mandible is an example of ______. (joint)
Condyloid
____________ lines the joint capsule and secretes synovial fluid.
Synovial membrane
_________ prevents friction within the joint cavity.
Synovial fluid
____________ is made of fibrous connective tissue; encloses the joint like a sleeve.
Joint capsule
______ are sacs of synovial fluid that permit tendons to slide easily across the joint.
Bursae
____________ provides a smooth surface on the joint surfaces of bones.
Articular cartilage
__________ fractures are clean break, normal position, minimal tissue damage.
Simple
_________ fractures are broken end of bone that pierces skin and may be extensive damage to surrounding tissue, with pain.
Compound
________________ fractures are lengthwise split, common in children.
Greenstick
______ fractures are when the bone is crushed.
Comminuted
______ fractures are when broken ends are forced into one another, many fragments.
Impacted
________ fractures are caused by no trauma. Results of osteoporosis.
Spontaneous
__________ sinuses are air cavities that open into the nasal cavities. ______ sinsues are in each temporal bone.
Paranasal

Mastoid
_________ is the abnormal curves of the spine in the thoracic vertebrae.
Scoliosis
________ effects the thoracic curve - aka hunchback. ______ effects the lumbar curve - aka swayback. Both are results of disease process.
Kyphosis

Lordosis